The James A. Drake Interviews • Ted Lewis (Part 1)

INTERVIEW WITH TED LEWIS
Part 1 of 3
 James A. Drake

 

This interview was conducted in 1968 at Temple Israel, in Columbus, Ohio,
courtesy of Rabbi Jerome D. Folkman.

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I’d like to ask you several questions about the clarinet.  When I had the privilege of meeting you between your shows at the Ohio State Fair about ten years ago, the clarinet you used in your show was an Albert system.  I know of some players who started with the Albert and then switched to Boehm.  Did you ever do that?  Can you play both systems?    

The Albert [system] was popular with the ragtime fellows, but the Boehm was what many of the New York fellows were playing.  I tried to learn it, but it was so different than the Albert that I just couldn’t stick to it.  So I stayed with the Albert.

 

Do you recall the name, or brand, of your first B-flat clarinet?

Yes, it was a Lambert.  It was a good name in clarinets.  Made in Paris, and imported over here.

 

Is that the instrument you were playing when you joined the Earl Fuller band?

Well, I still had the Lambert when I went with Earl, but not too long after I settled in New York, I tried out a clarinet made by a fellow named Brancati, O. M. Brancati, who had a store on Lexington Avenue.  I heard that he had an arrangement with Vandoren in Paris to ship him barrels, pads, keys, spring, and such.  His [Brancati’s] workmen would assemble and adjust the instruments to suit the client.

 

Do you have a preference in mouthpieces?

I think I’ve tried them all at one time or another.  For a while, I was playing with a glass mouthpiece.  The one I learned on was a wood mouthpiece.  It was okay because it was well seasoned, but I was always worried that I might drop it and put a chip in the tip.  I worried about that with the glass mouthpiece too.  I used a hard-rubber mouthpiece on and off, and it was very stable.  I use Bakelite mouthpieces most of the time.

 

I wondered if you were using a plastic mouthpiece these days.

I should try one of the newer ones.  Plastic has come a long way, and I hear that some of them are pretty good.

 

You use a standard metal ligature.  Did you always use a metal one?

Yes, and I’ve had several different ones.  The one I liked the best had three screws instead of two.  Now, the old players, the ones who came up from New Orleans, they used string for a ligature.  Some of them used fishing line to hold the reed in place.

 

Of the several New Orleans clarinets who came to New York when the jazz movement started, did any of them have an influence on your playing?

Oh, yes—there were several, as you say, but Al [Alcide] Nunez was the one I really admired.  All of the New Orleans fellows he played with thought Al was the tops.  He had a nickname, “Yaller,” which was the way the fellows who played with him pronounced “yellow.”  I don’t know if you know this, but Al was with the band that became the Original Dixieland Jazz Band when they were just a five-piece band playing in Chicago.  About the time I started with Earl Fuller’s band, word was coming out of Chicago that Al Nunez was the hottest clarinetist of them all.

 

What was it about his playing that influenced your style?

In one word, everything!  If you listen to the records he made with the Louisiana Five, you hear how easily he could play in the upper register—and I mean an octave above what almost any other clarinetist could play.  You don’t hear his low register in those records, because it didn’t record very well, but his low-register playing was almost like what you’d hear from a classical clarinetist.  Oh, he could do the growling, “reedy” low notes that you hear Sidney Bechet play when he’s on clarinet.  But Al could play like a conservatory graduate when he wanted to.  Every note he played had the same quality, high to low and low to high, and his vibrato never varied from top to bottom.

 

Your own clarinet sound and your high-register playing are really distinctive.  Has your tone and your style changed a lot from when you were starting out with the Earl Fuller band?

You mean my “wah-wah” vibrato?  That’s the style I developed when I was with [the] Fuller [band].  We were a novelty act, a “clown band.”  The kind of music we played, meaning the songs we played, were called “nut songs” back then.  I developed that high-register “wah-wah” as my part of the act.  I always held the clarinet pointed upward, and moved it all around—left and right, up and down—while I was playing.  Sometimes I would do a dance while I was playing, or I’d mimic a guy marching with big, high steps.  That’s where the top hat came in, too.

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In your show, and also in your second RKO album, in the introduction you make to “Wear a Hat with a Silver Lining,” you talk about your famous hat.  “Since nineteen-six / it’s played the sticks / from Maine to Mandalay” is one of my favorite lines.  Can I induce you to talk about how you acquired your famous hat?

I tell that story in my act—I won it in a dice game.  That’s not the shabby one I wear onstage, though.  That first hat was a pretty nice, shiny top hat.  It wasn’t my exact size, so I wore it cocked to the side.  I have about a dozen of them.

 

What prompted you to make that battered hat a kind of signature, along with your clarinet and your distinctive way of delivering a song?

Well, the top hat was always associated with high society.  You know, “a top hat, a white tie, and tails,” as Irving Berlin wrote.   If you wore a top hat, people might say that your nose was up in the air, that you were stuck up.  If a fellow put on airs, somebody might say, “He’s high-hatting us,” meaning that he’s got his nose in the air.  So to take a beat-up top hat and wear it was a little like what Chaplin did with the derby.  It was taking a high-society hat and putting it on a riverboat tramp.  It was my trademark, but there were others who used a battered hat for a similar effect.  Harpo Marx was one.

 

But why a beat-up top hat, when you were always dressed in a dark suit or a tux? 

The contrast was what I was after.  I wore the hat like the Currier and Ives comic characters did.  That’s where I got that from.

 

Would that have been from the “Darktown” series of Currier & Ives?

You’ve seen those, have you?  That’s where all of the Negro acts came from.  They patterned themselves after those [Darktown] characters.  If you’re familiar with the great Bert Williams, you’ll know that a couple of his characters from his “Follies” acts were made up and dressed up like those Currier & Ives Darktown characters.

 

Back to the clarinet, do you recall the first clarinet you learned to play?

Well, the first one was the E-flat, the smallest clarinet, and then when I got big enough I went to the B-flat [clarinet].  The E-flat one was a metal Albert [system] clarinet.  That’s the one I learned on.

 

Was the clarinet your first instrument?

No, I started with a piccolo, believe it or not.  I was just a tyke and my fingers weren’t long enough to reach the keys of a clarinet.

 

In a Columbia catalog supplement from the late-1920’s, there is a photo of you playing saxophone.  Did you “double” on sax and clarinet in your band, or any of the bands you played with before you formed your own group?

Only when I had to, meaning when another sax player was necessary for an arrangement.  The sax was the electric guitar of the 1920’s, you know.  You may have heard of Rudy Wiedoeft—

 

Yes, the composer of “Saxophobia,” and the man from whom Rudy Vallée borrowed his first name.

That’s right.  Rudy Wiedoeft, and a group called the Six Brown Brothers, and also a fellow who worked for me from time to time, Benny Krueger, were the ones who were considered the top men on sax in those days.

 

Staying with Rudy Valleé for a moment—and he was just here [in Columbus] about two months ago, and I interviewed him about this—he said that when he put together his first band, the Yale Collegians, he did an impersonation of you.  His impersonation of you, along with the one he did of Maurice Chevalier, became part of his show at the Paramount Theater.  I would guess that you and Maurice Chevalier and Al Jolson have been impersonated more than any other performers.  Would you agree?

If you’re talking about performers in general, not just singers and musicians, I think you’d have to add Groucho [Marx] to that list.  But, yes, I saw Rudy’s impersonation in one of his shorts [short films], and it was pretty good because he could imitate my swaying and my “strut,” you might call it.  And he could play the clarinet in my style, too.

Of the stars you just mentioned, I think I’m the easiest to imitate because I don’t really sing, I “talk” a song.  Chevalier and Jolson “talked” lyrics too, but they were singers.  They talked a little just for an effect.  Now in my case, a fellow can get himself an old battered top hat, and a white-tipped cane, and a clarinet—even if it’s just a prop and they don’t play it.  And if they can mimic my inflections and my gestures, why, they can do me pretty easily.

 

Were you and Al Jolson friends?

I knew Al, of course, but Al was a fellow who didn’t socialize much.  I’ve belonged to the Friars Club for more years than I can remember, and I love going there and playing cards with my friends in show business.  Al wasn’t like that, you see.  Al was always “on,” even when he wasn’t onstage.  He had to be in the spotlight, no matter where he was or what he was doing.  Everybody in the business knew Al and respected him as a great performer, a big star, but Al was a loner.

 

Your delivery of a song is so distinctive that I think it’s right to say it’s unique.  How did you develop it?  Where did it stem from?

From Cohan.  George M. Cohan.  He “talked” a song, you know.  I saw every one of his hit shows, and each one was greater than the one before it.  Have you seen the movie with Jimmy Cagney?

 

Yes, several times.

Jimmy Cagney was a dancer, you know, but his style was nothing like Cohan’s.  But when you see him dancing as Cohan in that movie, you’d swear you were seeing George M. Cohan.  Now, Jimmy doesn’t sound like Cohan, but he “talks” the lyrics like Cohan did.  The only difference was that Cohan would sing more of the lyrics than Jimmy Cagney does in that film.  Jimmy’s not a singer, he’s a dancer.  Cohan could sing “straight” when he wanted to.

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© 2018 by James A. Drake. All rights are reserved. Short excerpts may be quoted without permission, provided the source and a link to this posting are cited. All other use requires prior written consent of the copyright holder. Please e-mail Mainspring Press with questions, comments, or reproduction requests for the author.

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Ted Lewis (clarinet) with Earl Fuller’s Famous Jazz Band

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EARL FULLER’S FAMOUS JAZZ BAND (Ted Lewis, clarinet):

Jazz De Luxe

New York: June 13, 1918
Edison 50541 (mx. 6224)

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TED LEWIS & HIS BAND: Barnyard Blues [Livery Stable Blues]

New York: June 5, 1924
Columbia 170-D (mx. 81808 – 2)

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COMING IN PART 2: Cricket Smith, more on Earl Fuller,
Lewis starts his own band

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Announcing the James A. Drake Interview Series

We’re proud to announce the launch of new blog series, The James A. Drake Interviews, transcribed from previously unpublished interviews with Ted Lewis, Gus Haenschen (a.k.a. Carl Fenton), Milton Cross, and other prominent figures in the entertainment and recording industries. All offer fascinating glimpses into the subjects’ personal and professional lives. Skillfully conducted, they will make you feel as if you actually know the artists.

The series starts later today, with Part 1 of the Ted Lewis interview. Conducted in 1968, it contains a wealth of information about Lewis’ early days with the Earl Fuller band, his musical influences (including clarinetist Alcide “Yellow” Nunez and African-American trumpeter Cricket Smith, whose barbershop Lewis swept as a boy), the formation of Lewis’ own band, and his recollections of Al Jolson, George M. Cohan, and other stars.

Because the interviews are lengthy, each will be serialized over a span of several days. We’ve added graphics and sound-files to round out the experience. Enjoy!

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James A. Drake is the author of seven books and more than fifty articles. Two of his biographies, Ponselle: A Singer’s Life (Doubleday & Company), and Richard Tucker: A Biography (E. P. Dutton Company), with forewords by tenor Luciano Pavarotti, were selected as Books of the Month by the National Book Clubs of America. His other books include Rosa Ponselle: A Centenary Biography; Teaching Critical Thinking; Popular Culture and American Life; and Lily Pons: A Centennial Portrait (with K. B. Ludecke). He was also a contributing author to the 24-volume American National Biography (Oxford University Press, 1999) and The International Dictionary of Opera (St. James Press, 2000) and served on the editorial board of The Opera Quarterly.

His expertise in nineteenth- and twentieth-century operatic performances led to his serving as a co-host of the radio series “Voices That Live,” created by producer-announcer Don Martin (Martin Jager). When the series was revived and syndicated in the late 1980s, Drake and his new co-host, broadcaster Charles Koelsch, received the Certificate in Arts and Culture award from the International Radio Festival Association in New York.

Born in Columbus, Ohio, Drake earned his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University in 1973 and has had a distinguished career in academia that includes having served as administrator at the University of Tampa (1979–1984), Findlay College (1984-87), and Clemson University (as Executive Director of the University Center, Greenville, South Carolina, 1988–1994). During 1987–1988, he served as a full-time research consultant and equity partner with an Ohio-based management consulting firm, co-directing the higher-education division.

After relocating to Florida’s Space Coast in 1994, Drake served on the governing boards of various community agencies and was appointed as a layperson to the 18th Judicial Circuit Nominating Commission and the 18th District Grievance Committee of the Florida Bar Association. In March 2007, he was named President of Brevard Community College, which in July 2008 was featured on CNN and in The New York Times, Time Magazine, and other news sources for its energy-reduction initiatives under his leadership. In December 2008, Drake again received national press coverage after donating approximately $100,000 of his income to create textbook scholarships for students. He currently resides in Florida.

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The Louisville Jug Band Gets Arrested (1914), and Other Earl McDonald Snippets

The earliest known personnel listing for the Louisville Jug Band, 1914. “Colvin” presumably is a typo for Ben Calvin, who worked on-and-off with McDonald for many years; could “John Smith” be a typo for Cal Smith, a long-time McDonald associate? (Louisville Courier-Journal, October 20, 1914)

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A 1918 iteration of the Louisville Jug Band, interrupting their Chicago engagement for a week’s appearance at the Antler cabaret in Dayton, Ohio. Can anyone identify the members? (Dayton Daily News, April 14, 1918)

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McDonald and company fared far better than most race-record artists during the early Depression years, thanks to their popular “Ballard Chefs” broadcasts. Originating in Louisville, the program aired in many major cities. (What’s on the Air, April 1930)

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Earl McDonald entertains at the University Kentucky. (Louisville Courier-Journal, February 15, 1948)

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(Louisville Courier-Journal, April 29, 1949)

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SARA MARTIN & HER JUG BAND: I’m Gonna Be a Lovin’ Old Soul

New York: September 1924
Okeh 8211 (mx. S 72837-b)

Clifford Hayes, violin; Curtis Hayes, banjo; Earl McDonald, jug

 

Highlights from the Pathe Records Catalog (August 1916)

From the Bill Bryant papers at Mainspring Press. Note the issue by Rector’s New York Dance Orchestra (Leopold Kohls, director), which is missing from American Dance Bands on Records and Film. A bit of trivia for the organ fans out there, from a page not pictured: Pathé’s “exclusive” studio organ was a Mason & Hamlin (a popular line of reed organs), model not mentioned.

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Collectors’ Corner • Some March Finds (Fletcher Henderson, Sammy Stewart, William Haid, Wendell Hall, Bob Deikman)

After a sluggish start that included plowing through more red-label Columbias, etc., than anyone should ever have to, March ended with some nice finds from a collector who’s downsizing. If you’re doing the same, and have material of similar quality to dispose of, let us know (top prices paid for top records, if needed for the collection; true E- or better, on the VJM scale, with strong V+ the minimum acceptable grade except in rare cases). Here are a few favorites from the new batch:
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FLETCHER HENDERSON & HIS ORCHESTRA: You’ve Got to Get Hot  [EE-]

New York: October 1923
Vocalion 14726 (mx. 12199)

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FLETCHER HENDERSON & HIS ORCHESTRA: Charleston Crazy  [E]

New York: November 1923
Vocalion 14726 (mx. 12376)

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SAMMY STEWART & HIS ORCHESTRA: Copenhagen  [E-]

Chicago: September 1924
Paramout 20359 (mx. 1891-1)

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WILLIAM HAID: Shim-Sha-Wabble [sic] & I’ll See You in My Dreams  [V+]

Marsh Laboratories, Chicago: c. January 1925
Autograph unnumbered (mx. 701)

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WENDELL HALL: Hot Feet  [E-]

New York: March 29, 1927
Champion 15295 (Gennett mx. GEX-561)

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BOB DEIKMAN’S ORCHESTRA (as Grandview Inn Orchestra): Roll Up the Carpets  [E]

Richmond, IN: December 25, 1927
Champion 15401 (Gennett mx. GEX-991)

Antique Phonograph Ephemera • 1904 Zonophone Gatefold Card

From the 1904 transitional period, soon after the Universal Talking Machine had been purchased by Victor’s Eldridge R. Johnson but was still marketing its own (pre-Victor) phonographs. The “Zonophone Company” name on the inner panel was used only briefly, dating this piece to fairly early in the year. (Many thanks, Jorge – I owe you a finder’s fee!)

Mainspring’s American Zonophone discographical data — now including all general-catalog 7″, 9″, 10″, 11″, and 12″ pressings — can be found on the free Discography of American Historical Recordings website, hosted by the University of California–Santa Barbara. If you prefer books, Bill Bryant’s 10″ / 12″ American Zonophone discography is still available on the  Mainspring Press website at special close-out pricing (but quantities are very limited).

Collector’s Corner • Some February Finds (Stracciari, Szkilondz, Lizzie Miles, Fletcher Henderson, Jelly Roll Morton, Harry Hudson, Coon Sanders Night Hawks

Lots of immigrant 78s turned up this month, and Denver being a sanctuary city, I just had to offer them a safe home (don’t tell Captain Tweetie & the ICE Patrol) — Most notably, a big cache of tasty jazz and hot-dance items on British labels, plus a few scarce-label operatics, to add to the collection; and several crates of nice stuff for the next auction (some of it—gasp—Mexican), whenever that may be. Here are a few new favorites from the February haul (sorry, the arias haven’t been checked for proper pitch)…
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RICCARDO STRACCIARI: Tannhauser – Romanza di Volframo (E-)

Societa Italiana di Fonotipia 278 [92459]
Milan: February 12, 1909

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ADELAIDE ANDREJEWA SZKILONDZ: Lakme – Glöckchen Arie (EE-)

Parlophon P.275
Berlin: 1910s
In response to a listener’s question: Yes, this is the complete side; the unusual “cold start” is exactly as recorded

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LIZZIE MILES (Clarence Johnson, piano): You’re Always Messin’ ’Round with My Man (EE-)

His Master’s Voice B 1703
New York: May 23, 1923

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FLETCHER HENDERSON & HIS ORCHESTRA: Alabamy Bound [take 3]  (E-)

Imperial (British) 1420
New York: January 1925

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JELLY ROLL MORTON & HIS RED HOT PEPPERS: That’ll Never Do (E)

His Master’s Voice B 4836
New York: March 5, 1930

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HARRY HUDSON’S MELODY MEN (Hudson, vocal): It Don’t Do Nothin’ But Rain (E-)

Edison Bell Radio 849
London: April 1928

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HARRY HUDSON’S MELODY MEN (Hudson, vocal): How Long Has This Been Goin’ On? (E-)

Edison Bell Radio 849
London: April 1928

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COON SANDERS NIGHT HAWKS ORCHESTRA (Carlton Coon, vocal): That’s All There Is, There Ain’t No More (EE-, with label damage)

Zonophone (British) 3946
Camden, NJ; August 7, 1925

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“American Idol,” 1916 Style

“American Idol,“ 1916 Style
By Allan Sutton

 

Long before The Voice, American Idol, Horace Heidt, or even Major Bowes, there was the Colorado Scholarship Fund contest of June 1916 — possibly the first amateur-talent contest for which the reward was a record deal (of sorts). The contest was widely publicized in the Colorado newspapers, and even The Talking Machine World (the major trade-paper of the day) covered it in detail:

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The record still turns up often in Colorado, generally to the dismay of collectors, since aside from the interesting-looking label, it’s pretty dreadful (so much so, that we won’t post the sound-file, out of respect to two artists caught at an awkward stage in their development). In defense of Ms. Forsyth and Mr. Parsons, both were truly amateurs at the time, and Forsyth had recently suffered throat problems, according to a local paper.

For all its shortcomings, the record appears to have sold very well. It didn’t lead to a Columbia contract for either singer (and was numbered in Columbia’s Personal Record series, ensuring it would never be listed in a Columbia catalog), but apparently the experience encouraged them to pursue professional careers. Both took up vocal studies at Denver’s Wilcox Studios shortly after the record’s release.

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Forsyth remained in Denver until late 1919, when she joined the All-American Opera Company on tour, as an understudy to Anna Fitziu. By the early 1920s she had married and settled in Los Angeles, where she became a fixture on the local concert circuit and taught at Davis Musical College.

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Alice Forsyth in Los Angeles, 1923

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Parsons joined the Jambon Players, a group that entertained the troops overseas during World War I, then settled in Pittsburgh. In addition to regular concert and church work, he was a radio pioneer, broadcasting regularly over station KDKA beginning in 1921. During 1927–1928 he appeared on Broadway in Artists and Models, which ran for 151 performances at the Winter Garden. In the later 1920s he had his own program on KDKA and was a featured star on NBC’s Yeast Foamers program during 1929–1930.

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Chauncey Parsons at Loew’s Aldine Theater (Pittsburgh), 1924

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The Colorado contest was so successful that it was later repeated in other cities.

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Mainspring Press Updates (Feb-March 2018): Leeds & Catlin Online Database / American Records Companies & Producers 1888-1950

Leeds & Catlin Database Going to DAHR in March

Our Leeds & Catlin database is going to the University of California Barbara–Santa Barbara in March, to be incorporated in their free online Discography of Historical American Recordings. It includes all the latest updates to Leeds Records: A History and Discography (now out of print). Watch for the online release later this year.

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Nearing Completion:

American Record Companies and Producers, 1888–1950: An Encyclopedic History

Approx. 780 pages (hardcover)
Release date, imprint, and price to be announced

 

American Record Companies and Producers 1888–1950 covers all producers of original recordings for the retail, subscription, and jukebox markets in detail — from the dawn of the wax-cylinder era through the advent of the LP, from the behemoths to the smallest and most obscure. (Not covered are companies that produced only reissues, children’s records, or pressings from imported masters; personal recordings; promo and one-off labels, etc).

The book is based on reliable primary-source materials (100% Wikipedia-free), including company and legal documents, original recording and production files, trade-press and newspaper reports, accounts of the persons involved, etc. — all fully cited. Anecdotal accounts, when they appears at all, are clearly identified as such.

The work differs from our earlier American Record Labels and Companies in that it is organized by companies or producers rather than by label names. So, for example, you will still find all the information you need on the Black Swan label under the Pace Phonograph Corporation entry, or on the Phono-Cut and Colonial labels under the Boston Talking Machine Company entry. There will be a label index (in addition to general topic and song title indexes) to help you navigate.

Being primarily a business history, the book does not have label illustrations; however, we are looking into the possibility of having a label DVD produced as a stand-alone product at some point, if there is sufficient interest.

 

The following 1,000+ entries are now complete; the remainder (not listed here) are in final fact-checking and editing:

 

A:  •  A-1 Records of America  •  Abbey Record Corporation / Abbey Records, Inc. / Peter Doraine, Inc.  •  Ace Record Company  •  Acme Radio & Record Corporation, et al.  •  Admiral Records, Inc. / Adam Records, Inc.  •  Advance Records  •  Adventure Record Company / Adventure Records, Inc.  •  Advertiser Publishing Company, Ltd.  •  Advertisers Recording Service, Inc.  •  Aeolian Company, The  •  Aetna Music Corporation  •  Aguila Record Manufacturing Company  •  Alabama Phonograph Company  •  Aladdin Records  •  Alben Record Company  •  Alco Recording Company  •  Alco Research & Engineering Company  •  Alert Records, Inc.  •  Alegene Sound & Radio Company / Algene Recording Studios  •  Allegro Records  •  Allender Record Distributors  •  Allied (Phonograph and) Record Manufacturing Company  •  Allied Recording Company  •  Alpha Records, Inc.  •  Alvin Records  •  Am Records / American Music  •  Ambassador Records / Ambassador-Enterprise Records, Inc.  •  American Elite, Inc.  •  American Graphophone Company  •  American Institute of Music–Arts & Drama  •  American Jazz, Inc.  •  American Odeon Corporation  •  American Phonograph Company  •  American Phonograph Record Company  •  American Record Company [I]  •  American Record Company [II]  •  American Record Corporation  •  American Record Manufacturing Company [I]  •  American Recording & Transcription Service  •  American Recording Artists / ARA Records  •  American Recording Company  •  American Recording Laboratories  •  American Talking Machine Company [I]  •  American Talking Machine Company [II]  •  American Vitaphone Company  •  Americana Records  •  Americana Records Company  •  Amigo Music Publishing Company / Ansa Records  •  Ammor Record Corporation / Ammor Record Company  •  Amuke Record Company  •  Angelico Company / Angelophone Records  •  Apex Recording Laboratory  •  Apex Recording Studios  •  Apollo Record Company  •  Apollo Music Enterprises / Apollo Records, Inc. / Rainbow Record Shop  •  Appliances Company, The  •  Arcadia Records & Transcription Company, Inc.  •  Arco Records [I]  •  Arco Records [II]  •  Arden Recording Company  •  Ardene Record Company  •  Arista Record Corporation  •  Aristocrat Record Corporation  •  Arrow Phonograph Corporation  •  Art Service Music  •  Artist Records, Inc.  •  Artistic Records  •  Artists Music Corporation  •  Arto Company, The  •  Arvid Records, Inc.  •  Asa Records  •  Asch Recording Studios / Asch Records  •  Associated Cinema Studios  •  Associated Studios Broadcasting & Recording  •  Atlas Record Company  •  Atlantic Records  •  Atomic Record Company / Atomic, Inc.  •  Atwood–Herscher Publications / Harry G. Atwood Enterprises  •  Auburn Button Works  •  Audeon Corporation  •  Audience Records, Inc.  •  Audio Company of America / ACA Recording Studios, Inc.  •  Austin, Gene, Record Company  •  Autograph Records  •  Avalon Record Company  •  Ayo Records

B:   B. J. Exploitation Company  •  Bacchanal Recordings, Inc.  •  Bachman Studio  •  Bacigalupi, Peter (& Son)  •  Baldwin Recording Studios, Inc.  •  Balkan Record Company  •  Ballen Record Company / Gotham Record Corporation  •  Bandwagon Records, Inc. / Bennett Records  •  Banner Records, Inc.  •  Barthel Records / Barthel, Inc.  •  Bartlett, Ray  •  Batt Masian Company  •  Bee Bee Bee Records  •  Belgian Conservatory of Music, Inc.  •  Bell Record Company / Bell Record Corporation  •  Bell Record Company, Ltd.  •  Bell Recording Corporation  •  Bell Records, Inc.  •  Bel-Tone Recording Corporation  •  Beltone Recording Corporation  •  Berliner, Emile: American Gramophone Company / United States Gramophone Company / Berliner Gramophone Company  •  Besa Records  •  Bethlehem Music Company / Bethlehem Recording Laboratory  •  Bettini Phonograph Laboratory  •  Bibletone  •  Big Nickel Records  •  Black & White Records / Black & White Recording Company  •  Blue Chip Records  •  Blue Danube Records  •  Blu-Disc Record Company  •  Blue Bonnet Music Company  •  Blue Label Records  •  Blue Note Records  •  Blue Record Company  •  Blue Ribbon Music Company / Blue Ribbon Records  •  Blue Star Records  •  Blu-White Record Company, Ltd.  •  Boney Records  •  Bongo Record Company  •  Bop Records  •  Bornand Music Box Record Company  •  Bost Records Company  •  Boston Talking Machine Company  •  Boswell, D. E. & Company  •  Bourne, C. H.,  Recording Company  •  Bradley, Richard, & Associates  •  Bridgeport Die & Machine Company  •  Brinckerhoff & Company, Inc. / Brinckerhoff Studios, Inc.–Time Abroad / General Sound Corporation  •  Broadcast Recorders, Inc.  •  Broadcast Recording Studios / Broadcast Records  •  Broadway Records  •  Bronze Recording Studio / Bronze Record & Recording Company  •  Broome, George  •  Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company  •  Brunswick Radio Corporation  •  Brunswick Record Corporation     •  Bullet Recording & Transcription Company / Bullet Plastics / Bulleit Enterprises, Inc.  •  Burke & Rous  •  Burt (Manufacturing) Company

C:  C & S Phonograph Record Company  •  Cadet Record Company  •  Cadillac Record Company [I]  •  Cadillac Record Company [II]  •  California Record (Manufacturing) Company  •  California Recording Company  •  Cameo Record Corporation  •  Canzonet Record Company  •  Capital Sound Studios  •  Capitol Records, Inc.  •  Capitol Roll & Record Company  •  Capri Records  •  Cardinal Records, Inc  .  •  Ca-Song Record Corporation / Auto-Photo Record Company  •  Case Recording Company  •  Castle Record Company  •  Castle Records, Inc. [I]  •  Castle Records, Inc. [II]  •  Cavalcade Music Company  •  Cavalier Recording Company  •  Celesta Records Company  •  Celps Record (& Supply) Company  •  Celtic Record Company, Inc.  •  Central Nebraska Phonograph Company  •  Champion Record Company  •  Champion Recording Corporation  •  Chance Record Company  •  Changer Publications, Inc.  •  Charm Records, Inc.  •  Charles Eckart Company, The  •  Cherokee Record Company  •  Chicago Central Phonograph Company  •  Chicago Gramophone Society  •  Chicago Record Company  •  Chicago Recording Studios, Inc.  •  Chicago Talking Machine Company  •  Chief Record Company  •  Cincinnati Record Manufacturing Company  •  Circle Records / Circle Sound, Inc.  •  Clano, J. & J. / Verdi Music Shops (E. E. Verdi)  •  Clark Phonograph Record Company  •  Clarion Record Company  •  Clarion Record Manufacturing Company, Inc. / Clarion Records, Inc.  •  Classic Record Company  •  Claude Record Company  •  Clef Records, Inc.  •  Clipper Records  •  Clover Records Company, Ltd.  •  Club Records  •  Co-Art Records Company  •  Coast Record (Manufacturing) Company / Charles E. Washburn Company  •  Cobra Records  •  Coleman Recording Company / Coleman Records, Inc.  •  Collectors Items, Inc.  •  Colorado Phonograph Company / Colorado & Utah Phonograph Company  •  Columbia Phonograph Company & Related Companies: American Graphophone Company / Columbia Phonograph Company, General / Columbia Graphophone Company / Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company / Columbia Phonograph Company, Inc. •  Columbia Recording Corporation / Columbia Records, Inc. [CBS]  •  Comar Records  •  Comet, Inc.  •  Commodore Music Shop / Commodore Record Co., Inc.  •  Compo Company, Ltd. / H. S. Berliner Recording Laboratories (New York)  •  Command Records  •  Compass Record Company  •  Concert Hall Society, Inc.  •  Concert Music Shop, Inc.  •  Concert Phonograph Record Company, Inc.  •  Consolidated Film Industries  •  Consolidated Phonograph Companies, Ltd.  •  Consolidated Record(ing) Corporation / Consolidated Recording Laboratories  •  Continental Phonograph & Record Company  •  Continental Record Company, Inc.  •  Cook Laboratories  •  Cormac Records  •  Corona Records  •  Coronet Records  [I]  •  Coronet Records (Inc.)  [II]  •  Cosmo Records, Inc.  •  Courtney Records  •  Cova Recording Corporation  •  Covered Wagon Records, Inc.  •  Cowboy Record Company  •  Cozy Records  •  Crescent Record Company  •  Criterion Laboratories / Criterion Records, Inc.  •  Crown Record Company  •  Crown Record Corporation [I]  •  Crown Records [I]  •  Crown Records [ II ] / Crown Recording Corporation  •  Crystal Recording Studio  •  Crystal-Tone Record Company  •  Crystalette Records of California / Crystalette Records, Inc.  •  Cudahy Recording Corporation  •  Cyclone Records, Inc.

D:   Damon Recording Studios, Inc. / Damon Transcription Laboratory & Sound Service  •  Dana Records, Inc. / Dana Music Company  •  Danceland Record Company  •  Dance-Tone Record Company / Dance-Tone Records, Inc.  •  Dansrite Record Company  •  Davis, Joe: Beacon Record Company / Celebrity Records / Joe Davis Record Company / Davis Record Corporation / Jay-Dee Records  •  DC Records  •  De Luxe Record Company, Inc.  •  Decca Records, Inc.  •  Delmac Record Company  •  Delray Recording Company / Paradise Recording Company  •  Delvar Recording Company  •  Derby Records Corporation  •  D-H Recording Company  •  Dial Records  •  Diamond Record Company, Inc.  •  Diamond Record Corporation  •  Disco Recording Company, Inc.  •  Disco Recording Studios / Disco Recordings  •  Discos Azteca  •  Discovery Records, Inc.  •  Dixie Records  •  Dolphin, John: Dolphin’s of Hollywood / Recorded in Hollywood, et al.  •  Dome Records (Inc.)  •  Domestic Talking Machine Corporation  •  Domino Phonograph Corporation  •  Domino Records  •  Donett Hit Record Company  •  Dot Records  •  Down Home Corporation  •  Down Home Record Company  •  Down River Records  •  Dudley Records  •  Duke Record Company  •  Duplex Phonograph Company  •  Durium Products Corporation / Durium Products, Inc.

E:   Eagle Record Company / ABC-Eagle Records  •  Early American Dances  •  Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Company  •  Ebony Records  •  Echo Recording Company  •  Echo Records  [I]  •  Eddie’s Records  •  Edison Phonograph Company / Edison Phonograph Works  •  Edison Phonograph Company of Ohio  •  Eily, E. A. Record Company  •  Ekko Recording Corporation  •  Electric Phonograph Corporation  •  Electric Recording Laboratories  •  Electro Broadcasters  •  Electro-Vox Recording Studios  •  Emanon Record Company  •  Embassy Record Company  •  Emerald Record Company  •  Emerson Phonograph Company, Inc.  •  Emerson Recording Laboratories, Inc.  •  Empey Records, Inc.  •  Empire Broadcasting Corporation  •  Empire Record & Music Company  •  Empire Record Company / Empire Record Corporation  •  Empire Recording Studios  •  Encore Record Company  •  Englewood Records  •  Enterprise Records (Inc.)  •  Eslava Recording Company  •  Etna Recording Company, Inc.  •  Everstate Records  •  Everybodys Record, Inc.  •  Excellent Record Corporation  •  Excelsior Phonograph Company / Excelsior & Musical Phonograph Record Company  •  Excelsior Records  •  Exclusive Records  •  Exner Record Company / F. B. Exner

F:   F & P Records  •   Faith Records  •  Famous Record Company  •  Famous Records, Inc.  •  Famous Singers Records, Inc.  •  Fanfare Records  •  Fantasy Records  •  Fargo Records  •  Favorite Recording Company  •  FBC Distributing Company  •  Federal Record Corporation  •  Fentone Enterprises  •  Fine Arts Recording Company  •  Fine Recording Company / Fine Recording Studios  •  Fletcher Record Company, Inc.  •  Flint Records, Inc.  •  Flora Records  •  Florida Phonograph Company  •  Florida Records  •  FM Records / FM Recording Company  •  Folkraft Records  •  Folkways Records & Service Corporation  •  Fortune Records  •  Fox Record Company  •  49th State Hawaii Record Company  •  Frank’s Folk Tune Record Company  •  Fran-Tone Records  •  Freedom Recording Company  •  Franwil Record Company  •  Fraternity Record Company  •  Friends of Recorded Music, The  •  Frontier Records

G:  •  Gaelic (Phonograph) Record Company, Inc.  •  Gala Record Company / Gala Record Corporation  •  Gamut Records  •  Garten, Mauricio (Maurice): Aguila Recording Company / Tri-Color Recording Company  •  Gee Bee Records  •  Geddins, Robert L. (Bob): Big Town Recordings / Down Town Recording, Inc. / Cava-Tone Recording  •  Gem Records, Inc.  •  General Phonograph Corporation  •  Gennett Recording Laboratories / Gennett Records  •  Georgia Phonograph Company  •  G. I. Records, Inc.  •  Gilt-Edge Record Company / 4 Star Record Company, Inc  •  Glenn Wallichs Recording Studios  •  Globe Distributors  •  Globe Phonograph Record Company  •  Globe Record Company [I]  •  Globe Record Company [II]  •  Glo Tone Records  •  Gold Medal Records, Inc.  •  Gold-Rain Recording Company  •  Gold Seal Record Company  •  Gold Tone Record Company  •  Goldband Record Company / Goldband Recording Studio  •  Golden Gate Record Company, Inc.  •  Golden Record Company, Inc.  •  Good Time Jazz  •  Goody Record Corporation / Gotham Record Company  •  Gospel Trumpet Company  •  Gramophone Shop, The  •  Grand Record Company  •  Greater New York Phonograph Company  •  Greek Record Company  •  Green Recording Studios  •  Grecol Enterprises, Inc.  •  Gregory Record Company / Bobby Gregory Records / Cathy–Bobby Gregory Records  •  Grey Gull Records, Inc.  •  Grimes Music Publishers / Clef Publications  •  Guild Records, Inc.  •  Groovy Records  •

H:   H & M Laboratories  •  H. K. S. Publishing Company  •  Hamp-Tone Records, Inc.  •  Handy Record Company  •  Happiness Records  •  Harding, Roger  •  Hardman Record Company  •  Hargail Records  •  Harmonia Record Corporation  •  Harmony Record Company  •  Harmony Recording Laboratories  •  Harmony Records  •  Harms, Kaiser & Hagen  •  Harris Record Company / Harris Recording Laboratories  •  Harry Lim Recordings  •  Harry Smith Recordings  •  Hart-Van Record Recording Company  •  Hatch, Thomas W., Publisher  •  Haven Records, Inc.  •  Hawthorne & Sheble [Manufacturing] Company  •  Headline Record Corporation of New York  •   Herzog, E. T., Recording Company  •  High Time Records  •  Hi-Lite Recording Company  •  Holiday Record Company  •  Holiday Records (of Hollywood)  •  Hollywood Records  •  Hollywood (Phonograph) Record Company  •  Hollywood Recording Company  •  Hollywood Rhythms Record Company  •  Hollywood Star Records  •  Holmes Royal Records Company  •  Hot Record Society / H. R. S. Recordings  •  Houston Records  •  Howard, Mary, Recordings  /  Mary Howard Studios  •    Howard Records, Inc.  •  Hub Records  •  Hucksters Recording Company, Inc.  •  Hunting, Russell  •  Hy-Tone Recording Company / Hy-Tone Manufacturing & Distributing Company

I:   Ideal Record Company, Inc.  •  Ideal Records  •  Idessa Malone Distributors / Idessa Malone Enterprises / Staff Record Company  •  Imperial Record Company [I]  •  Imperial Record Company, Inc.  [II]  •  Imperial Records, Inc.  •  Imperial Talking Machine Company  •  Impresario Records  •  Indestructible Phonographic Record Company  •  Independent Recording Laboratory, Inc.  •  Indigo Recordings, Inc.  •  International Phonograph & Record Company  •  International Record Collectors Club  •  International Record Company [I]  •  International Record Company [II]  •  International Recording Studio  •  International Records  •  International Records Agency  •  Iowa Phonograph Company  •  Island Music & Recording Company  •  Israel Record Company  •  Ivory Recording Company / Ivory Records

J:  J. O. B. Records  •  Jamboree Records, Inc.  •  Jazz Disc  •  Jazz Information Records  •  Jazz Ltd.  •  Jazz Man Record Shop  •  Jazzology Records  •  Jewel Record Company [I]  •  Jewel Record Company [II]  •  Joco Records  •  John Currie Enterprises  •  Jones (Recording) Laboratories / Jones Research Sound Products  •  Jubilee Records Company, Inc. / Jay-Gee Record Company, Inc.  •  Jugoslavia Jewelry & Phonograph Company  •  Juke Box Record Company  •  Jump Records  •  Jupiter Records

K:  •  Kansas City Talking Machine Company  •  Kansas Phonograph Company  •  Kappa Records, Inc.  •  Keen-O-Phone Company, Inc.  •  Keltic Record Corporation  •  Kem Records, Inc.  •  Kentucky Phonograph Company  •  Keynote Records  •  Keystone Records  •  Khoury’s Recordings  •  King Jazz, Inc.  •  King Record Company  •  Kismet Record Company  •  Krantz Records  •  Ku Klux Klan–Affiliated Companies

L:  •  La Bonita Records  •  La Marr Record Company  •  Laborator Ed. Jedlicka  •  Laboratory Association, The  •  Lamb’s Recording Studios  •  Lambert Company, The  •  Lamplighter Records  •  Lark Record Company  •  Lasso Record Company  •  Latin American Records  •  Lauderdale, Jack: Downbeat Recording Company / Swing Beat Records / Swing Time Record Company  •  Laurent Records, Ltd.  •  Lee & Roth Enterprises  •  Lee Sales Company, Inc.  •  Leda Records Company  •  Leeds & Catlin Company  •  Leeds & Company  •  Leslie Records, Inc.  •  Liberty Music Shop(s)  •  Liberty Phonograph Company  •  Liberty Record Company [I] / Blazon Records  •  Liberty Record Company [II]  •  Liberty Recording Company  •  Library of Congress–Division of Music  •  Life Record Company  •  Life Records  •  Lina Records  •  Lincoln, Benjamin  •  Lincoln Record Corporation  •  Lincoln Records, Inc.  •  Linden Recordings / Linden Records  •  Lindwood Recording Company  •  Little Wonder Record Company  •  Lissen Records, Inc.  •  Lloyd’s Novelty & Curio Shop  •  London Gramophone Corporation  •  Lone Star Music Publishers  •  Lone Star Publishing & Recording Company  •  Louisiana Phonograph Company, Ltd.  •  Lucky 7 Recording Company  •  Lyraphone Company of America  •  Lyric Phonograph Company

M:  •  M & S Distributing Company  •  Macy’s Recording Company  •  MacGregor, C. P.: MacGregor & Sollie, Inc. / MacGregor & Ingram Recording Laboratories / MacGregor Transcriptions Studios  •  Maestro Music Company / Maestro Record Company  •  Macksoud, A. J.  •  Magnolia Recording Company  •  Magnolia Records Company, Inc.  •  Main Stem Music Shop  •  Main Street Records  •  Majestic Phonograph Company, Inc. / Majestic Record Corporation  •  Majestic Records, Inc.  •  Major Records  •  Maloof Phonograph Company  •  Manhattan Music Corporation  •  Manhattan Recording Laboratories  •  Manor Record Company  •  Margo Record Company  •  Mar-Kee Records  •  Mars Records  •  Marsh Laboratories, Inc.  •  Marshall, Charles  •  Marshall Record Company  •  Marvel Record Company  •  Marvel Records  •  Master Records, Inc. [I]  •  Master Records [II]  •  Mastertone Record Company, Inc.  •  Maunay Records  •  Mayfair Record & Recording Corporation  •  Melben Records  •  Melford Record Company  •  Mello-Strain Records, Ltd.  •  Mellow Music Shop / Mellow Record Company  •  Mel-Mar Records  •  Melmore, Inc.  •  Melodisc Recording Company  •  Melody Lane Recording Company  •  Melody Moderne, Inc. / Memo Records Corporation  •  Melody Records, Inc.  •  Melody Trail Records  •  Melrose Records  •  Meltzer, Sam  •  Memphis Recording Service / Phillips Recording Service  •  Mercer Records  •  Mercury Record Corporation  •  Merit Records  •  Mertone Recording Company  •  Metro Records (Inc.) [II] / Mero Records, Inc.  •  Metropolitan Phonograph Company  •  Metropolitan Record Company  •  Metrotone Record Company  •  Miller, J. D.  •  Milton, Roy, Record Company  •  M-G-M Records, Inc. / Loew’s, Inc.  •  Michigan Phonograph Company  •  Mida Record Company  •  Midget Music, Inc. / Midget Music Productions / Fidelity Records [I]  •  Miller Publications, Inc.  •  Minnesota Phonograph Company  •  Miracle Record Company  •  Mirror Recordings  •  Missouri Phonograph Company  •  Modern Music Records / Modern Records  •  Modern Record Company  •  Modern Recording Studio  •  Monarch Records, Inc.  •  Monroe, John  •  Montana Phonograph Company  •  Mood Records  •  Morrison Music Company  •  Motif Record Manufacturing Company  •  Movietone Music Corporation  •  Murray Singer Records  •  Music Art Records  •  Music Enterprises, Inc.  •  Music For Society Record Company  •  Music, Inc.  •  Music-Mart Records  •  Music on Parade Records  •  Music You Enjoy, Inc.  •  Musical Phonograph Record Company  •  Musicraft Records / Musicraft (Recording) Corporation  •  Mutual Records  •  Muzak (Transcriptions), Inc. / Muzak Corporation / Associated Music Publishers Recording Studios  •  Myers, J. W.,  Standard Phonograph Record Company

N:   National Phonograph Company  •  National Record Company  •  National Records Company  •  National Vocarium, The  •  Nation’s Forum  •  Natural Hit Record Company, A  •  Nebraska Phonograph Company  •  New England Phonograph Company  •  New Jazz Record Company / Prestige Records  •  New Jersey Phonograph Company  •  New Music Quarterly Recordings  •  New Orleans Bandwagon  •  New Orleans Record Shop  •  New York Phonograph Company  •  New York Phonograph Recording Company  •  New York Recording Laboratories  •  Newark Recording Laboratories  •  Night Music Recording Company  •  Norcross Phonograph Company  •  Nordskog Phonograph Recording Company  •  North American Phonograph Company  •  North American Recording Company  •  Notary Records, Inc.  •  Numelody Records  •  Nutmeg Record Corporation

O:   O’Byrne De Witt, E. (& Son[s]) / O’Byrne Dewitt, James, Inc.  •  O’Dowd, Thomas  •  Ohio Phonograph Company  •  Ohio Talking Machine Company  •  Okeh Phonograph Corporation  •  Oklahoma Tornado Recording Company  •  Old Dominion Phonograph Company  •  Oliver Record Company  •  Olympic Disc Record Corporation  •  Opera Record Company / Opera Recording Company  •  Opera Records  •  Operaphone Company, Inc. / Operaphone Manufacturing Corporation  •  Opus Records  •  Ora Nelle Record Company  •  Orchid Record Corporation  •  Orchid Records & Publications  •  Oriole Records Corporation  •  Orpheum Record Company  •  Orpheus Record & Transcription Company  •  Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Company, Inc.

P:   Pace Phonograph Corporation  •  Pacemaker Record & Transcription Company  •  Pacific Record Company  •  Pacific Phonograph Agency / Pacific Phonograph Company  •  Page Recording Company  •  Palda Record Company  •  Pan-American Publications / Pan-Am Transcriptions  •  Pan-American Record Company / Birwell Corporation  •  Panhellenion Phonograph Record Company, Inc. / Panhellenic Record Company  •  Parade Record Company  •  Paradox Industries, Inc.  •  Paragon Records, Inc.  •  Paramount Record Manufacturing (& Recording) Company  •  Paramount Records  •  Parsekian, M. G.  •  Parkway Records  •  Parody Records  •  Paroquette Record Manufacturing Company, Inc.  •  Party Record Company  •  Pathé Frères Phonograph Company  •  Pathé Phonograph & Radio Corporation  •  Paull, E. T. Music Company  •  Pavilon Recording Company  •  Peacock Recording Company  •  Peak Records, Inc.  •  Pearl Records  •  Pearson’s Productions, Inc.  •  Penguin Recording Corporation  •  People’s Artists, Inc.  •  People’s Songs  •  Perfect Record Company  •  Phamous Records  •  Pharos Record Company  •  Philadelphia Recording Laboratories  •  Philmos Recording Company  •  Philo Recordings  •  Phoenix Publications & Recordings  •  Phonograph Record & Supply Company  •  Phonograph Recording Company  •  Photo & Sound, Inc.  •  Phototone Records  •  Pilot Radio Company / Pilot Radio Corporation  •  Pioneer Recording Company  •  Pix Records  •  Planet Record Company  •  Plaza Music Company  •  Pleasant Records  •  Plymouth Recording Company  •  Polo Record Corporation  •  Polonia Phonograph Company  •  Poloron Records  •  Polotone Music Corporation  •  Polyphone Company, The / Talking Machine Company, The  •  Popular Record Company  •  Premier Radio Enterprises, Inc. / Premier Records  •  Premier Record Company  •  Premium Record Corporation  •  President Records  •  Preview Records  •  Process Record Company  •  Prudentia Records  •  Public Records, Inc.  •  Pyramid Record Company / Pyramid Records

Q:   Q. R. S. Company  •  Quaker Music Company  •  Quality Records, Inc.  •  Quinn Recording Company / Gold Star Records Records

R:   Rabson’s  •  Radio Corporation of America–RCA Victor Division  •  Radio Recorders, Inc.  •  Radio-Rundfunk Corporation / Europa Import Company  •  Radio Transcription Company of America, Ltd.  •  Ragtime Records  •  Rainbow Records, Inc. / Rainbow Recording Corporation  •  Rancho Records  •  Rapoport, Maurice A.: Metro Records [I] / Rex Records / Rem Records  •  Raven Recording Company  •  Raymor–McCollister Music / Raymor Record Company  •  Rebelle Records  •  Rec-Art Recordings / Rec-Art Studios  •  Record Manufacturing Company  •  Record Syndicate Trust  •  Red Jay Recording Company  •  Red Bird Recordings  •  Redskin Records  •  Reed & Dawson / Reed, Dawson & Company  •  Reeves Sound Studios / Reeves Soundcraft Corporation  •  Regal Record Company, Inc.  •  Regal Record Corporation  •  Regal Records  •  Regent Records  •  Regis Record Company / Regis Records, Inc.  •  Rego Records  •  Relax Records  •  Religious Recordings  •  Remington Records, Inc.  •  Relax Records  •  Republic Records / Cecille Music Company  •  Rex Talking Machine Corporation  •  Reynard, James Kent  •  Rhapsody Records  [I]  •  Rhapsody Records  [II]  •  Rhumboogie Recording Company  •  Rhythm Records Company  •  Rhythm Recordings, Inc.  •  Rich Recordings  •  Rich Publications / Rich-Art Enterprises, Inc. / Rich-Art Records  •  Rich-R’-Tone Record Company  •  Richmond Records  •  Richtone Record Company  •  Ringle, David (Dave): Heart Records / Belmont Records, et al. •  RKO Pathe Studios  •  Rivoli Records  •  Rodeheaver, Homer: Rainbow Record Company / Rodeheaver Record Company / Rodeheaver Recording Laboratories  •  Robin Records Company  •  Rocket Record Company  •  Rocket / Rockette Recording Company  •  Rodeo Records  •  Roland Records  •  Rondo Records, Inc.  •  Roost Records, Inc.  •  Rosas Records  •  Rouge Records  •  Roy Records  •  Royal Record Company / Sepia Records, Inc.  •  Royal Records  •  Roycrofters, The  •  ’R-Tist Record Company  •  Rumpus Record Company

S:   S & G Records  •  S. B. W. Recording Company / Carl Sobie Publishing  •  Sacred Records, Inc.  •  Saks Records  •  San Antonio Phonograph Company  •  San Antonio Records, Inc.  •  Sapphire Record & Talking Machine Company  •  Sapphire Record Company  •  Sarco Record Company  •  Savoy Record Company  •  Scandinavian Music Company  •  Scandinavian Music House, Inc.  •  Schirmer Records  •  Schooler Record Company  •  Schooner Records  •  Scoop Record Company [I]  •  Scoop Record Company [II]  •  Scoop Records  •  Scott Record Company  •  Scranton Button Company / Scranton Record Company  •  Sears, Roebuck & Company–Silvertone Record Club  •  Security Records  •  Seeco Records, Inc.  •  Select Records, Inc.  •  Selective Record Company  •  Sellers, Inc. / Sellers Company, The  •  Sensation Record Company  •  Sequoia Record Company  •  Serenade Recording Corporation  •  Session Records, Inc.  •  Seva Record Corporation  •  Seymour Records  •  Sharp Record Company  •  Siemon Hard Rubber Company  •  Signature Record Company / Signature Recording Corporation  •  Silver Records  •  Silver Spur Records  •  Silver Star Record Company  •  Silver Star Recording Company  •  Sittin’ In With Records, Inc.  •  Skyscraper Recording Company  •  Slate Enterprises, Inc.  •  Society Recordings  •  Sokhag Record Company  •  Solo Art Recordings  •  Sonart Record Corporation  •  Songcraft, Inc.  •  Song-of-the-Month Club  •  Sonora Phonograph Company, Inc. / Sonora Phonograph Corporation  •  Sonora Radio & Television Corporation / Sonora Record Company  •  Sonorous Music Company, Inc.  •  Sorority Fraternity Records & Publications / Mayhams & Co-Ed Records  •  South Dakota Phonograph Company  •  Souvenair Records Company  •  Spanish Music Center / Coda Record Company  •  Specialty Record Company, Inc. / Famous Record Company, Inc., of New York  •  Specialty Records  •  Spikes Brothers Phonograph Company  •  Spin Records, Inc.  •  Spire Records Company, Inc.  •  Spire Records, Ltd.  •  Spiro Record Corporation  •  Spokane Phonograph Company  •  Spotlight Records, Inc.  •  Spotlite Record Company  •  Square Deal Recording Company  •  Stanchel Record Company  •  Standard Phonograph Company, Inc. [I]  •  Standard Phono / Phonograph Company, Inc. [II]  •  Stanley Recording Company of America, Inc.  •  Stapleton Industries  •  Star Melodies Music Publishers & Record Producers  •  Star Records  •  Starland Records  •  Starlite Recorders, Inc.  •  Starr Piano Company – Gennett Records Division  •  Starr Record Company  •  State Phonograph Company of Illinois  •  Steiner, John  •  Stellar Records, Inc.  •  Sterling Records, Inc.  •  Stinson Records / Stinson Trading Company  •  Stork Record Company  •  Strong Record Company, Inc.  •  Sullivan Records  •  Sultan Recording Company  •  Sunbeam Recording Company  •  Sunrise Record Corporation  •  Sunset Record Company  •  Sunset Recording Company  •  Sunshine Recording Company / Sunshine Productions & Records  •  Sunstone Record Company  •  Super Discs  •  Superb Record Company  •  Superior Recording Company  •  Supreme Records, Inc.  •  Swan Recording Company, Inc.  •  Sweet-Tone Record Company  •  Swing Record Manufacturing Company  •  Swing with the Stars  •  Sylvan  •  Symphony Records  •  Syrena Recording Company

T:   Talent Records / Star Talent Records  •  Talking Photo Corporation  •  Talk-O-Phone Company, The  •  Tanner Manufacturing & Distributing Company  •  Tara Irish Records  •  Taxco Recording Company  •  Taylor-Lee Recording Company  •  Tech-Art Recordings  •  Technicord Records  •  Tele-Records, Inc.  •  Tempo-Tone Recordings  •  Texstar Records  •  Tempo Record Company of America  •  Tennessee Phonograph Company  •  Tennessee Records  •  Texas Phonograph Company  •  Theme Records  •  Thomas A. Edison, Inc. – Phonograph Division  •  Three Minute Record, Inc.  •  Thrillwood Records  •  Time Abroad, Ltd.  •  Timely Recording Company  •  Tin Pan Alley Records Company  •  Token Records  •  Tone Records  •  Top Record Company / Top Records, Inc.  •  Top Tune Records  •  Tops Music Enterprises / Tops Records  •  Town & Country Record Company, Inc.  •  Trell Records  •  Trilon Record Manufacturing Company  •  Trident Records Corporation  •  Tri-State Recording Company  •  Triumph Records  •  Trope Records  •  Trophy Record Company  •  Tropical Records  •  Tru-Blue Record Company  •  Tru Tone Productions, Inc. / Tru Tone Records, Inc.  •  Trumpis-Collar & Associates  •  Tune-Disk Record Corporation  •  Turntable, The

U:   Ultra Record Company  •  Union of Irish Industries, Inc.  •  Unique Music Publishers & Recording Company  •  Unison Records  •  United Artist Records  •  United Broadcasting Company / Master Record Company  •  United Hebrew Disk & Cylinder Company / United Hebrew Record Company  •  United Masters, Inc.  •  United Sound Studios / United Sound Systems  •  United States Phonograph Company [I]  •  United States Phonograph Company [II]  •  United States Record Corporation  •  United States Record Manufacturing Corporation  •  Unity School of Christianity  •  Universal Phonograph Company  •  Universal Recording Company, Inc.  •  Universal Recording Laboratories / Universal Recording Corporation / Universal Records  •  Universal Recording Studios / Universal Record Company  •  Universal Talking Machine (Manufacturing) Company  •  University Recording Company, Inc.  •  University Records Corporation  •  Uptown Records  •  Urab Recording Studio / United Recording Artists Bureau  •  Urban Record Company

V:   Van-Es Recording Company  •  Vanguard Records  •  Vargo, Inc. / Vargo Record Company  •  Variety Records, Inc.  •  Vaughan, James D., Publisher  •  Vega Records  •  Velvet Record Company  •  Velvet Tone Record Company  •  Verne Recording Corporation of America  •  Victor and Victor Predecessor Companies: Johnson Sound Recording Company / Consolidated Talking Machine Company / Victor Talking Machine Company  •  Victory Records  •  Viking Record Company  •  Vitacoustic Record Company / Vitacoustic Records, Inc  •  Vitanola Talking Machine Company  •  Vocalion Records, Inc.  •  Vogue Recordings, Inc.  •  Von Battle Recording Company  •  Vox Corporation of America  •  Vox Productions, Inc.  •  Vulcan Record Corporation  •  Vulcan Records

W:   W & W Recordings & Distributors  •  Walcutt, Miller & Company / Walcutt & Leeds / The Walcutt & Leeds Ltd.  •  Wallin’s Music Shop  •  Wallis Original Record Company  • Warner, Jesse J.: Flexo Record Company / New Flexo Record Company / Pacific Coast Record Company / Titan Productions, et al.  •  Watch Tower Bible &  Tract Society  •  Webster Records  •  West Coast Phonograph Company  •  West Coast Recordings  •  Western Pennsylvania Phonograph Company  •  Western Records / Western Recording Company  •  Western Recording Company / Constellation Record & Distributing Company  •  Western Recording Studios  •  Wheeling Recording Company  •  Williams & Rankin  •  Williams, J. Mayo: Chicago Records / Ebony Records / Harlem Records / “Ink,” Inc., et al.  •  Whirling Disc  •  White Church Recording Company  •  Willow Walk Industries  •  Winchester Sound  •  Winsett Recording Laboratory  •  Winston Holmes Music Company  •  Wisconsin Phonograph Company  •  Wonder Records  •  WOR Electrical Recording &  Transcription Services / WOR Recording Studios  •  World Broadcasting System, Inc. / World Transcription Studios  •  World Records, Inc.  •  World’s Greatest Music  •  Wright Record Corporation  •  Wrightman, Neale: Neale Wrightman Publishers / Wrightman Music, Inc. / Wrightman Record Company / Wrimus Company  •  Wyoming Phonograph Company

Y:   Yaddo Recordings  •  Yale Record Company  •  Yerkes Recording Laboratories  •  Your Record Company

Z:   Zarvah Art Record Company  •  Zomar, Karl, Library / Columbine Records  •  Zora Recording Studios

 

Collector’s Corner • Some January Finds (Arcadian Serenaders, Bennie Moten, The Missourians, William McCoy, Fleming & Townsend)

Pretty good pickings in January – Here are a few favorites from this month’s additions to the collection:

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ARCADIAN SERENADERS [WINGY MANNONE]: San Sue Strut  (E-)

St. Louis: November 1924
Okeh 40378

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BENNIE MOTEN’S KANSAS CITY ORCHESTRA: Get Low-Down Blues  (E)

Camden, NJ: September 7, 1928
Victor 21693

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BENNIE MOTEN’S KANSAS CITY ORCHESTRA: Kansas City Breakdown  (E)

Camden, NJ: September 7, 1928
Victor 21693

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THE MISSOURIANS: Missouri Moan  (E)

New York: June 3, 1929
Victor V-38067

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THE MISSOURIANS: Market Street Stomp  (E)

New York: June 3, 1929
Victor V-38067

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WILLIAM McCOY: Mama Blues  (EE-)

Dallas: December 6, 1927
Columbia 15269-D

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WILLIAM McCOY: Train Imitation and The Fox Chase  (EE-)

Dallas: December 6, 1927
Columbia 15269-D

An unusual example of a record issued in both the race  (14290-D) and country series (15269-D, which is missing from Brian Rust’s Columbia Master Book Discography [Greenwood Press]). The artist is African-American.

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REECE FLEMING & RESPERS TOWNSEND: She’s Just That Kind  (V+)

Memphis: June 6, 1930
Victor V-40297

 

Some Early Record-Pressing Plants

AUBURN BUTTON WORKS (Auburn, NY) — Founded in 1876  by John Hermon Woodruff, as Woodruff’s Button Factory, this  company was renamed Auburn Button Works in the late 1880s. It moved into the Washington Street buildings shown here in 1900. Auburn pressed the 7″ and 9″ brown-shellac Zonophone discs at an auxiliary plant in New York City.

The relationship was severed after Zonophone switched to Duranoid pressings in 1904, and the pressing equipment was moved to Auburn, where the International Record Company (producers of Excelsior, Lyric, et al.) was set up as a recording subsidiary. The company was forced to suspend production of its own records after losing a 1907 patent-infringement suit to Columbia. In the early 1920s the pressing plant was leased to Brunswick, then was sold to the Scranton Record Company in November 1924.

Auburn continued to manufacture other goods after spinning off the pressing business. Its final incarnation was as Auburn Plastics, Inc., which was incorporated on July 1, 1957, and dissolved (after many years of inactivity) on March 24, 1993.

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COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY (Bridgeport, CT) — Columbia’s sprawling Bridgeport complex housed most production operations other than recording. Acquired by the American Record Corporation in 1934, it continued to produce high-quality laminated pressings for ARC’s more expensive labels (Brunswick, Columbia, Liberty Music Shops, et al.), while pressing of ARC’s budget labels remained in Scranton. Conditions in the Bridgeport pressing plant were so bad by the mid-1930s that record producer John Hammond published a scathing exposé and attempted to unionize the workforce.

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VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COMPANY (Camden, NJ) — The largest record-production facility in the United States at the time, the Victor complex was a city unto itself, with its own printing plant, fire department, infirmary, auditorium, police force, docks, and rail line. The view above is from 1916; just twenty years earlier, future Victor founder Eldridge Johnson was building motors for Emile Berliner in a rented shack. The sole surviving structure now houses luxury apartments.

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LEEDS & CATLIN COMPANY (Middletown, CT) — In September 1905, Leeds & Catlin opened this pressing plant in the former Worcester Cycle Company factory, replacing its New York City plant. The move coincided with Leeds’ phase-out of its foil-labeled discs. Three months later, the company announced it had installed fifty additional presses to accommodate the ever-increasing demand for its new paper-labeled Imperial records. By the end of 1905, the Middletown plant was said to have an annual capacity of 150 million discs. This view appeared in a 1906 ad for Radium cylinders, Leeds’ short-lived attempt to re-enter the cylinder market.

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AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY / DOMESTIC / OKEH  (Springfield, MA) — The American Record Company (Hawthorne, Sheble & Prescott) pressed their blue-shellac discs in this building during 1904–1906. Horace Sheble later pressed his Domestic discs here, using the same sort of blue shellac.

Following the demise of Domestic, Otto Heineman took over the plant in early 1918 for his newly launched Okeh label. Unable to keep up with orders for the first several years, Heineman contracted his overflow pressing to at least two outside plants.

In this view, Okeh is sharing space with the International Insulating Corporation, one of Heineman’s many other business ventures. This pressing plant was closed after Heineman opened a more modern facility in Newark, NJ, in 1921.

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BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER COMPANY (Jersey City, NJ) — This was Brunswick’s second pressing plant; initially, it used a facility in Long Island City, NY. Brunswick also used the Auburn Button Works facility as an auxiliary pressing plant until November 1924, when the Scranton Button Company acquired Auburn’s pressing plant. Brunswick’s main pressing plant, in Muskegon, MI, opened in 1922. Vocalion’s masters were transferred there in March 1925. The Muskegon pressing plant was closed after the Brunswick and Vocalion labels were licensed to American Record Corporation, and in 1934 Decca Records purchased the largely obsolete equipment, much to its regret.

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STANDARD MUSIC ROLL COMPANY / THE ARTO COMPANY (Orange, NJ) — Employees assemble for a company photo in 1918 at the Standard Music Roll plant, before production of Arto records began (above). The photo was presented to president George Howlett Davis as a Christmas gift.

The Arto pressing plant was housed in a new structure, shown here in a 1919 architect’s sketch (below). Only the two-story structure on the right was actually built. In addition to the pressing plant, it housed Standard’s piano-roll flange factory. Although Arto claimed to operate its own studio, the vast majority of its masters were commissioned from outside sources, including Jones Recording Laboratories, Independent Recording Laboratories, New York Recording Laboratories, and Harry Marker’s H&M Laboratories (see Bell and Arto Records: A History and Discography, 1920–1928, available from Mainspring Press).

SCRANTON BUTTON COMPANY (Scranton, PA) — The largest independent American pressing plant for several decades, Scranton was closely affiliated with the Plaza Music Company / Regal Record Company group beginning in the early 1920s. Some accounts refer to this company in error as the Scranton Button Works.

Scranton sometimes invested in its clients (including National Music Lovers, in which it held a 49% stake) as a means of ensuring their continued business. At the time this view was published in 1924, the company has just acquired the Emerson recording division, which had been split from the radio division (the latter being the ancestor of the present-day Emerson corporation).

The plant was included in the 1929 merger that created the American Record Corporation. It continued to press budget labels for ARC until that company was sold to CBS, which had no use for the facility. Reorganized as the Scranton Record Company in 1939, it barely survived an entanglement with Eli Oberstein’s failed United States Record Corporation before re-emerging as a major independent plant. Capitol Records began purchasing  Scranton stock in 1944, and on March 26, 1946, it bought the company outright.

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NEW YORK RECORDING LABORATORIES (Grafton, Wisconsin) — Owned by the Wisconsin Chair Company (Port Washington, WI), this converted knitting mill on the Milwaukee River housed the pressing plant for Paramount and its many associated labels. It was a relatively primitive operation, and its pressings tend to reflect that. The pressing plant occupied the large structure on the left. Paramount’s now-legendary (and equally primitive) recording studio opened in late 1929, in the smaller building on the right. The studio building was demolished in 1938, the pressing-plant building in the mid-1940s.

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The Kaufman Brothers: Highlights from Jack Kaufman’s Scrapbooks (1910 – 1927)

A few years ago, Phil (“Road Mangler”) Kaufman kindly loaned us his grand-dad Jack’s scrapbooks, a treasure-trove of clippings and memorabilia relating to the Kaufman brothers’ time in vaudeville, as well as Jack’s family life. Here are some highlights, along with a few additional nuggets we recently found among Bill Bryant’s papers.

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Kaufman Brothers banner from the scrapbook’s inside back cover, c. 1910. The original act comprised Jack and Phil; Irving came in after the latter’s death in the late ‘teens.

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The Kaufman Brothers on the road (1910)

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Telegram sent to Jack Kaufman while appearing in Toronto, announcing the birth of his son. (1910)

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(Left, seated above arrow) Jack Kaufman’s wife, Rosina Carson Kaufman (a.k.a. Olive York), as an English showgirl. (Right) Jack Kaufman’s son Jules, c. late 1910.

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In the early days of their act, the Kaufmans regularly toured from coast to coast, but as the itinerary on the left shows, they later stayed close to home. Both pieces probably date to 1914, based on their position in the scrapbook. The misspelling “Kauffman” was not uncommon in newspapers.

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A telegram to the “Kuffman” brothers, November 1911. Bender, Coombs, Morgan, Pearl & Robinson was a vaudeville act comprising three Boston Athletics pitchers, the Pearl Sisters (Kathryn & Violet), and theatrical manager John Robinson. They toured together briefly after the 1911 World Series.

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An early ad for the Kaufman Brothers picturing Jack (left) and Phil (right), c. 1910. Before signing with Orpheum, they toured on the Pantages circuit.

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The Kaufmans were a favorite of newspaper caricaturists. These examples date from c. 1912–1914, when they sometimes  performed in blackface. “Palestine” refers to the town in Texas where the brothers claimed they picked up their “Southern” accents.

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Phil and Jack Kaufman in blackface with unidentified others, c. 1912. This unfortunate component of the act was mostly mothballed after Irving replaced Phil in the late ‘teens.

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After Phil’s death, Jack teamed with younger brother Irving, who had recently left the Avon Comedy Four. Irving and Jack were in  high demand by the recording studios. They worked cheap, weren’t picky about repertoire, and cranked out recordings by the hundreds, using so many aliases that new ones are still be discovered. Their cover of Gallagher & Shean’s Victor hit (“Absolutely, Mr. Gallagher?” “Positively, Mr. Shean!”) appeared on many minor labels. Regal’s ad pictured the actual Gallagher and Shean. (1923)

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Work is where you find it — in this case as an “added attraction” at a Philadelphia movie house. (1922)

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A hodge-podge of a concert at the Chicago Theatre, with selections ranging from a pipe-organ transcription of Wagner’s Rienzi Overture to a selection of current Tin Pan Alley hits by the Kaufmans.

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This Chicago handbill probably dates from 1923–1924. Note the mention of Jimmy Wade, a popular black Chicago band leader who recorded some fine sides for Paramount at about this time.

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The Kaufmans in a Vitaphone short (1927)

Russian Interference, Part 2 • Boris Morros Recalls His Time at ARA Records (1944 – 1945)

Russian Interference, Part 2: Boris Morros Recalls His Time at
ARA Records (1944 – 1945)

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In May 1934, Boris Morros, a musical director for Paramount Pictures, was secretly contacted by a member of the Russian NKVD in an attempt to plant Russian operatives throughout Hollywood. Vasily M. Zubilin was assigned to be his handler.

A decade later, Zubilin arranged for Soviet sympathizers Alfred K. and Martha Dodd Stern to buy into Morros’ music-publishing operation. With $130,000 from the Sterns, Morros launched the American Recording Artists (ARA) label, which (in addition to producing some fairly decent records) served as a cover for an extensive Soviet spy ring. The Russian’s involvement with ARA went undetected, and label was a success—at least briefly.

Morros redeemed himself on July 14, 1947, when he came clean to the FBI. In return for a promise from the Justice Department not to prosecute, he agreed to serve as a double agent, reporting on Soviet intelligence efforts for the next ten years. Here are his  recollections of the ARA operation, from his 1959 memoir, My Ten Years as a Counterspy (New York: Viking Press).

For the full story, see Russian Interference – Part 1: Boris Morris and ARA Records (1944 – 1957).

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That summer [1944]  it became known all over the music trade that I had latched on to an angel with a wide-open checkbook. I was even approached with offers to buy Muzak, the company that supplies “canned music” to restaurants and hotels all over the coun­try. We visited ex-Senator William E. Benton of Connecticut, who was then an official of the Muzak corporation, but Stern, who was the one who would put up the money, decided that the price of $600,000 asked for the properties was too high. He would go no higher than $400,000…

During August, Stern visited Hollywood, and I made the aston­ishing discovery that he already knew more about music, both artistically and commercially, than Paul Whiteman, myself, and Stravinsky combined. Meanwhile, I had surmounted many of our difficulties, and records were being produced. That fall we had a hit recording by Joe Reichman’s band. This was “Nobody’s Home on the Range,” a travesty of the song “Home on the Range,” which had boomed into renewed popularity because it was President Roosevelt’s favorite.

But Stern disapproved of almost everything we were doing. He disliked my office staff, including my sales manager. He wanted the man discharged, and wished me to switch control of the sales department to his office. Above all, he thought that we should con­centrate on songs of a more cultural type. For example, he disap­proved of “Chattanooga Choo Choo” as a vulgar title, and pre­dicted it would never be popular. He asked a million questions such as “Why don’t we sign up Bing Crosby instead of his brother Bob?” It was tiresome to have to point out that someone had had the same idea years before.

This was the man to whom I had to explain a few months before what a bar of music was, what the refrain was, the man who asked the usual foolish question, “What is written first—the words or the music?”

All that fall Stern showered me with daily letters of five to eight pages each. On hearing that we needed record-pressing equip­ment, he rushed out and bought $17,000 worth of second-hand presses that were so outmoded they could not be used.

I am afraid I was not very patient with my vice-president. By this time I had three shifts working in our little plant. They were turning out thirty thousand platters a day. They had to. Our “No­body’s Home on the Range” record was headed for the hit class.

Shortly after the partnership arrangement started, both Soble and Stern began pressing me to open a branch in Mexico City. They were still at it, though I had stalled that deal with the argu­ment that before we could do any such thing we must have enough numbers to distribute to Justify a catalogue. However, I was getting more infuriated every day with Stern’s silly letters of abuse and criticism. By now he was disapproving not only of the songs but of the arrangements.

At the end of the year I decided that life was too short to bother with this money man, and so informed Soble. But it was not until March—this was in 1945—that Jack decided he must do something to calm down both of us. He came with Stern to California to settle our differences. They arrived toward the end of the month and visited the plant.

“He is a musical ignoramus on all levels,” I told Soble. “I feel it is impossible to go along with him. The only thing we can do now is to break up this ridiculous partnership.”

“Artistic temperament!” clucked Jack Soble.

The next day they came back to the plant. When the angry words started to fly all over again, Soble suggested that we go to my home in Beverly Hills. I suppose he did not want our employ­ees to hear the dispute. My visitors stayed in Hollywood about a week. Soble, trying to act as peacemaker, kept repeating that the Cause was the one thing that counted, not my petty grievances or Alfred’s. We Just had to get along.

I have never pretended to be an even-tempered man. During that stormy week I called Stern every foul name I could think of in all the languages I knew—and I know profanity as it is spoken and spluttered around the world. Stern, the Harvard man, just sat there and took it with the uncomprehending look of a hurt child.

When the week was over with the issue unresolved, Soble said he had to get back to New York. But he was sure that some way to reconcile our differences would occur to him. He asked me to go with them on their trip East so that we would have further talks while traveling. I got a compartment that connected with the drawing room they shared.

En route Soble came up with what he considered the sure-fire solution: if I would agree to continue working with Stern he would invest another $100,000 in the company.

I refused this, telling Soble, “I don’t want any more of his money. In fact I would be happy to buy back his twenty-five-per­cent share of the business for what he paid for it.”

“This is going to make Vasya Zubilin very, very angry,” Soble said. “I’m afraid that he will be very hard on your family in Russia —unless you cooperate.”

“You said you were going to investigate this whole matter,” I reminded him. “You have not been impartial. What I want is a simple thing: to be left alone to do my job, unbothered by nincom­poops.” I glared at Stern.

On reaching New York, we had a final meeting at the Tavern-on-the-Green Restaurant. When it ended, we were as far apart as ever.

A couple of nights later Martha Dodd Stern visited me in my hotel room at the Sherry-Netherland. She was all sweetness and light. Martha blamed herself for neglecting to take a more active part in the business. “If I had, Boris,” she said, “there would have been no such misunderstandings between you two tried and true Communists.” She kept pounding at the point Soble had: the wel­fare of the Party should be our only consideration.

“Sorry, Martha, my dear,” I said, “you are being very charming and sweet, wistful and feminine—but too many wrong things have been done, too many said.”

My lawyers began drawing up the papers for dissolving the partnership in April. I paid Stern $100,000 for his one-quarter interest in the Boris Morros Company and its record-making sub­sidiary, American Recording Artists.

He rendered an account of how the $30,000 allotted him had been spent. I was amazed to see that he had given Zubilin $5,000 cash and charged it to the company. He had also charged petty items, including the purchase of a record player and two dozen tennis balls for Zubilin, as well as the full cost of his and Soble’s trip to Hollywood.

But I was glad to get rid of him. I thought I was also extricating myself from Jack Soble’s spy ring. To put it mildly, I was being naively optimistic.

I had been willing to pay a high price for the privilege of disas­sociating myself. To raise the $100,000 in cash to pay off Stern, I was forced to sell my share of a film property. But they still wished me to engage in a new venture with Alfred K. Stern.

Jack Soble kept coming to see me. “What can I do, Boris?” he said. “You have put me in the difficult position of having to write a bad report on you to Moscow. I am holding it back. I am afraid that Zubilin will be unable to control himself when he hears that you have split up with Alfred. I’d hate to feel responsible for the extermination of your relatives in Russia. Wouldn’t you?”

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Thank You, Alabama

THANK YOU, ALABAMA

From the Washington Post Editorial Board
December 13, 2017

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“In Tuesday’s special election, the state by a narrow margin chose to spare the nation the indignity of seating an accused child molester in the U.S. Senate. Though the stain of electing Republican Roy Moore would have sullied Alabama, seemingly confirming every negative stereotype about the Deep South state, the shame would have been national. Instead, Alabama voters chose Democrat Doug Jones to represent them until 2021.

“Mr. Jones is an honorable man with an admirable record of public service who ran a respectful campaign. His behavior suggests he will serve with decency and care in the Senate. He should make his state proud. None of these fine things could have been said of Mr. Moore. It is beyond heartening that Alabamians refused to overlook or forgive Mr. Moore’s misshapen character…

“If Americans should feel grateful to Alabama voters, so should the Republican Party, much of which debased itself by following President Trump into the gutter of support for Mr. Moore…

“Thanks to Alabama, Americans can wake up Wednesday morning feeling hopeful about the decency and dignity of their democracy.”

Washington Post (December 13, 2017)

 

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WILL TRUMP’S LOWS EVER HIT ROCK BOTTOM?

From the USA Today Editorial Board
December 12, 2017

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“A president who would all but call Sen. Kirsten Gillibrand a whore is not fit to clean the toilets in the Barack Obama Presidential Library or to shine the shoes of George W. Bush.

“This isn’t about the policy differences we have with all presidents or our disappointment in some of their decisions. Obama and Bush both failed in many ways. They broke promises and told untruths, but the basic decency of each man was never in doubt.

“Donald Trump, the man, on the other hand, is uniquely awful. His sickening behavior is corrosive to the enterprise of a shared governance based on common values and the consent of the governed….

“If recent history is any guide, the unique awfulness of the Trump era in U.S. politics is only going to get worse. Trump’s utter lack of morality, ethics and simple humanity has been underscored during his 11 months in office…

“The nation doesn’t seek nor expect perfect presidents, and some have certainly been deeply flawed. But a president who shows such disrespect for the truth, for ethics, for the basic duties of the job and for decency toward others fails at the very essence of what has always made America great.”

— USA Today (December 12, 2017)

 

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