The Playlist • Frank Stokes and the Beale Street Sheiks (1927 – 1928)

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BEALE STREET SHEIKS (Frank Stokes & Dan Sane): Beale Town Bound

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. August 1927
Paramount 12576 (mx. 4775 – 2)

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BEALE STREET SHEIKS (Frank Stokes & Dan Sane): Mr. Crump Don’t Like It

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. September 1927
Paramount 12552 (mx. 20045 – 2)

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BEALE STREET SHEIKS (Frank Stokes & Dan Sane): Blues in “D”

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. September 1927
Paramount 12552 (mx. 20048 – 2)

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FRANK STOKES: Downtown Blues

Memphis (Auditorium): February 1, 1928
Victor 21272 (mx. BVE 41822 – 1)
(Released: April 20, 1928; Deleted: 1931)

With uncredited second guitar. Take 2, also issued on 21272, is at a different tempo, uses some alternate lyrics, and does not include the reference to 1928.  Total sales, according to the Victor production files, were 13,449 copies — so not a particularly rare issue, as regional race records go, although there’s no way of telling for certain how scarce one take may be in relation to the other.

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Blues Fans — Be sure to check out these Mainspring Press titles, if you haven’t already. (We’re nearly sold out of “Paramount’s Rise and Fall,” and won’t be reprinting once the remaining copies are gone — order soon to avoid missing out!)

Be Sure to Get Your Free Downloads: Brian Rust’s “Jazz Records” and Dick Spottswood “Columbia E Series”

MSP_okeh_xmas

Just a reminder — especially to the many new followers who’ve signed up in the past couple of months — to check out our free downloads of Brian Rust’s Jazz Records, 6th Edition (Personal-Use Version, 1917-1934), and Dick Spottswood’s Columbia “E” Series Discography.

The Personal-Use Edition of Jazz Records contains the complete entries for 1917–1934 from Brian’s 6th (and final) edition of Jazz & Ragtime Records, 1897–1942. It’s a completely free, no-strings-attached public-domain edition, in Abode Acrobat PDF format. (The full edition is out-of-print in book form, but it’s still available for purchase from Mainspring Press as a searchable CD-ROM.)

Dick’s Columbia E Series Discography will be updated early next year, and we hope to have his Columbia “C” series discog soon; in the meantime, be sure to enjoy the current version. It’s a must-have for collectors and fans of ethnic recordings (with some surprises sprinkled in).

For free downloads and information on permitted use of these files, click the Free Online Discographies link on the box at the left.

 

The Playlist • Blue Kazoos (1924 – 1928)

msp_kazoo-composite-1

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MOUND CITY BLUE BLOWERS: Blue Blues

Chicago: February 23, 1924
Brunswick 2581 (mx. Ch 78)

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CHARLIE (DAD) NELSON: Cleveland Stomp

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. April 1927
Paramount 12492 (mx. 4350 – )
From a tape dubbing supplied by the late Mike Stewart

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BLIND BLAKE & HIS KAZOO BAND [sic]: Buck-Town Blues

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. April 1927
Paramount 12464 (mx. 4359 – 1)

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JOHNNIE HEAD: Fare Thee Blues — Parts 1 & 2

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. January 1928
Paramount 12628 (mxs. 20274 – 2 / 20275 — 2)

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PINK ANDERSON & SIMMIE DOOLEY: Gonna Tip Out Tonight

Atlanta: April 14, 1928
Columbia 14336-D (mx. W 146067 – 1)

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Quote of the Week:

“Let them eat cake.

Specifically, let them eat Jean-Georges Warm Chocolate Cake. But let them start with Young Garlic Soup with Thyme and Sauteed Frog Legs. Let them follow that with Diver Scallops, Caramelized Cauliflower and Caper-Raisin Emulsion. And let them proceed to Niman Ranch Lamb Chops with Mushroom Bolognese and Pecorino… That’s what President-elect Donald Trump and Mitt Romney ate when the billionaire met with Mr. Forty-Seven Percent to discuss a job in the incoming administration.

Remember Trump’s talk about taking on the elites and the well-connected? Well, you can stick a sterling-silver fork in it.

If you feared that Trump would destabilize markets and impose reckless protectionism, his early appointments are reassuring. If you wanted him to shake up the system and depose the coastal elites — well, early signs are you’ve been had.”

Dana Milbank (Washington Post)

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Discography 101 • Master Numbers Assigned Out of Chronological Order

We heard very quickly from several of the Old Guard concerning our statement, in the previous post, that some Paramount masters numbers might have been assigned out of chronological sequence. Understandably, some old-timers very much dislike having their discographical cages rattled, and rattle we did. None, however, has so offered any evidence that the New York Recording Laboratories  always assigned Paramount master numbers in perfect, strict chronological order.

Our question to them, then, is: Why would NYRL not have occasionally scrambled its master numbers? Assigning master numbers weeks or even months after the sessions at which the recordings were made was not an uncommon occurrence in the recording industry during this period, even among far better-organized companies than the notoriously slipshod NYRL.

Consider the following examples, plucked at random from the Victor files. All of these recordings sat around for one to six months after the sessions at which they were made, before finally being assigned master numbers — which by that time had advanced well beyond the numbers that would have been assigned at the time of recording. If one were to go simply by the normal chronological sequence of Victor master numbers, the approximate recording dates would appear to be those shown in Column 2. And they would be very wrong, as seen from the actual recording dates shown in Column 3:

msp_vic-mx_out-of-sequence

Many similar examples can be found in the Victor, Columbia, and Brunswick-Vocalion files throughout the 1920s — but you get the general idea.

A final note for now in what will be a long, ongoing investigation: There’s an especially telling case (which we’ll leave to its discoverer to reveal in detail in due time) in which NYRL numbers are demonstrably out-of-whack. This one involves a Paramount session to which the old-timers assigned a speculative recording date that’s literally an impossibility, apparently based upon their belief that NYRL numbers always marched along in strict chronological order — In this case, the artist is documented as having been out of the country at that time!

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The Playlist • “Charleston Back to Charleston,” Three Ways (1925)

msp-sm_charleston-back

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JACK STILLMAN’S ORIOLE ORCHESTRA:  I’m Gonna Charleston Back to Charleston

New York: c. October–November 1925?*
Paramount 20423 (mx. 2333 – 1)
*Evidence is mounting that Paramount’s New York studio did not always assign final master numbers at the time of recording — particularly some discrepancies between the date ranges given in traditional discographies (like the questionable one shown here), and confirmed date ranges extrapolated from talent-broker Ed Kirkeby’s session files. Could this be one of those instances, given that companies for which original files exist recorded this title during the mid-summer of 1925? A large amount of research remains to be done in this regard, but we’re on it — stay tuned!

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COON-SANDERS ORIGINAL NIGHT HAWKS ORCHESTRA (Carleton Coon & Joe Sanders, vocal): I’m Gonna Charleston Back to Charleston

Camden, NJ: July 13, 1925 (Released  August 21, 1925;  Deleted 1927)
Victor 19727 (mx. BVE 32768 – 4)

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CALIFORNIA RAMBLERS: I’m Gonna Charleston Back to Charleston

New York: July 9, 1925
Columbia 419-D (mx. W 140674 – 1)
Rust’s Jazz & Ragtime Records 1897–1942 and derivative works, including American Dance Bands on Records and Film, give the date as June 9, in error. July 9 is confirmed in the Kirkeby logbook and Columbia files.

The Playlist • The Chicagoans (1928–1929)

Some favorite sides featuring what early jazz writers termed “The Chicagoans,” a loosely affiliated group of young, white, mostly Midwestern jazz musicians who congregated in the city during the 1920s.

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MSP_bwk-4001-A_chicago-rk

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CHICAGO RHYTHM KINGS (as “Jungle Kings”; Red McKenzie, uncredited vocal): Friars Point Shuffle

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. Late March – Early April 1928
UHCA 3 (dub of Paramount 12654 [NYRL mx. 20563-2])

Given the scrambled accounts of this session in Eddie Condon’s autobiographical We Called It Music, and later in Brian Rust’s Jazz & Ragtime Records (6th Ed.), the date remains open to question. Rust erroneously stated that Condon said this session was held “on the day after the Chicago Rhythm Kings session for Brunswick.” But what Condon actually said was “The next day, he [Red McKenzie] went to Paramount and sold Lyons a date for us.” Compounding the problem is Condon himself, who got his two Brunswick-studio sessions out-of-order in his autobiography, confusing the first (on March 27, which produced only unissued masters allocated to Vocalion, including “Friars Point Shuffle”) with the second (on April 6). Although Condon stated that the Paramount date followed the session that produced “I’ve Found a New Baby,” his confusion over the Brunswick-studio sessions raises the question of which date the Paramount session actually followed.

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CHICAGO RHYTHM KINGS: I’ve Found a New Baby

Chicago: April 6, 1928
Brunswick 4001 (mx. C 1886 – A)

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RAY MILLER & HIS ORCHESTRA: That’s a Plenty

Chicago: January 3, 1929
Brunswick 4225 (mx. C 2743 – )
Three takes were recorded; the selected take is not indicated in the Brunswick files or on inspected pressings.

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ELMER SCHOEBEL & HIS FRIAR’S SOCIETY ORCHESTRA: Prince of Wails

Chicago: October 18, 1929
Brunswick 4653 (mx.  C 4560 – A)

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EDDIE [CONDON]’S HOT SHOTS (Jack Teagarden, vocal): That a Serious Thing

New York: February 8, 1929 (released May 17, 1929)
Victor V-38046 (mx. BVE 48346 – 2)

“Eddie Condon and his Orchestra” entered in Victor ledger, with “Eddie’s Hot Shots” assigned. This was a mixed-race session, with Leonard Davis (trumpet), Happy Caldwell (reeds), and George Stafford (percussion) present, which apparently was enough to land it in Victor’s predominantly black “Hot Dance” series.

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Now In Stock: “Race Records and the American Recording Industry, 1919–1945: An Illustrated History”

IN STOCK — ORDER DIRECTLY FROM MAINSPRING PRESS

MSP_race-records_cover

RACE RECORDS AND THE AMERICAN RECORDING INDUSTRY, 1919–1945: An Illustrated History
By Allan Sutton

388 Pages / 208 Illustrations
6″ x 9″ Quality Paperback

$39 US (Free Shipping)
$59 All Foreign (w/ Insured Airmail)

_______________________________________

MSP-race-records_contents

 

From the Preface:

Race Records and the American Recording Industry is the story of those remarkable companies and individuals who gambled on a new and often unpredictable market in the face of racial prejudice and entrenched business practices, and in doing so made the American recording industry more inclusive, and far more interesting, than it once had been.

This work takes a broad view of what were once termed “race records” — recordings intended primarily for the African-American market, which often were segregated in specially numbered series and not listed in the record companies’ main catalogs. Many modern writers associate race records solely with blues and gospel, the equivalent of assuming that rural whites bought only records of mountaineer tunes, or that Italian immigrants bought only opera. While blues and gospel made up a large portion of race-record offerings, they were only part of a broad spectrum that also included religious material of all sorts, jazz and dance music, mainstream pop, comedy and novelty selections, concert and classical material, and even the occasional country-music offering, all of which are explored in this work

Because the music itself has been amply covered elsewhere, this work instead focuses on the making, marketing, and distribution of race records prior to the late 1940s, exploring the ways in which those activities affected, and were affected by, conditions within the nation and within the recording industry as a whole. That is why (to respond in advance to inevitable criticism by Robert Johnson’s legions of fans) an entire chapter is devoted to Mamie Smith, whereas Johnson is covered in several pages. Were this a musical rather than a business and social history, the ratio, of course, would be reversed.

But Mamie Smith’s early records, whatever their musical shortcomings, had a profound impact on the recording industry, revealing a huge untapped market, opening the way for many other black artists to make records, and encouraging aspiring black entrepreneurs to get involved with record production, which until then had been completely controlled by whites. On the other hand, although Robert Johnson is now revered by mass-media rock stars and the pop-culture establishment (as much for the hoary legends surrounding him as for his music), in the 1930s he was just another talented but obscure local artist whose records went largely unnoticed outside of his home region, and who had no significant impact on the recording industry or American musical culture at the time his records were issued. Johnson receives as much coverage as he does mainly  because his story provides an excellent example of how the record companies handled, or mishandled, their race artists.

The book also debunks many common myths and misconceptions that stubbornly refuse to die, having been perpetuated for decades by writers who are content to parrot anecdotal material from questionable secondary sources. Some long-standing discographical errors have been corrected as well, based upon examination of primary-source materials that have been missed by earlier researchers…

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The Playlist • Mississippi Sheiks (1930, 1934)

MSP_OK-8807-403806

The Mississippi Sheiks were Walter Vinson (guitar and vocal; also spelled “Vincson” or “Vincent” at times, but Vinson is correct, according to the artist himself), with the Chatmon (a.k.a. Chatman) folks in various combinations, including Lonnie (violin and vocal), Bo (better known in solo work as “Bo Carter,” vocal and guitar) and Sam (vocal, violin, and guitar). None of the inspected recording files, other than those for the final three Bluebird sessions, list exact personnel.

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MISSISSIPPI SHEIKS: Stop and Listen Blues

Shreveport, Louisiana: February 17, 1930
Okeh 8807 (mx. W 403806 – A)

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MISSISSIPPI SHEIKS (as Walter Jacobs and Lonnie Carter):
The Jazz Fiddler

Shreveport, Louisiana: February 17, 1930
Okeh 45436 (mx. W 403804 – B)
Issued in Okeh’s white country-music series.

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MISSISSIPPI SHEIKS (as Walter Jacobs and the Carter Brothers): That’s It

San Antonio, Texas: June 10, 1930
Okeh 45482 (mx. W 404136 – A)
Issued in Okeh’s white country-music series.

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MISSISSIPPI SHEIKS: Somebody’s Got to Help Me [sic]

San Antonio (Texas Hotel): March 26, 1934 — Released October 3, 1934
Bluebird B-5659 (mx. BVE-82607– 1)

The Playlist • Moses Mason / Red Hot Old Mose (Paramount, 1928)

MSP_pmt-12702-B

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REV. MOSES MASON: Go Wash in the Beautiful Stream

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. January 1928
Paramount 12702 (mx. 20291 – 1)

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REV. MOSES MASON: John the Baptist

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. January 1928
Paramount 12702 (mx. 20290 – 2)

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MOSES MASON (as RED HOT OLD MOSE): Shrimp Man

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. January 1928
Paramount 12605 (mx. 20303 – 3)

 

Playlist and Discographical Update • A Little Coon-Sanders Deception (1928–1929)

MSP_bwy-1227b

Broadway pressing from NYRL mx. 20924 (with Joe Sanders’ last name
misspelled),
originally issued on Paramount 20668

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A bit of “hide the band” activity, while we’re on the subject of the Coon-Sanders Orchestra. In November 1928, they recorded four titles for Paramount at the Marsh Laboratories, obviously on the sly since they were exclusive to Victor at the time. Two sides were released under the suspicious-sounding “Manhattan Entertainers” name. The other two were credited to the “Castle Farms Serenaders,” which had at least a grain of truth, since the band  played on occasion at Cincinnati’s Castle Farms .

Three were titles that the band never recorded for Victor, but Joe Sander’s own “Tennessee Lazy” was an exception. Three months later (by which time the Paramount version probably had already been released), the band would record the tune for Victor under its  own name. Aside from the addition of Joe Sander’s vocal, and the obvious differences in tempo (due partly to slightly different recording speeds) and recorded-sound quality, the performances are virtually identical. No “cover” band could have produced such a perfect sound-alike, especially since the Victor version had not yet been recorded and thus could not have been copied.

Brian Rust somehow missed the correlation in Jazz Records 6th Edition, listing the “Castle Farms Serenaders” on this session as an entirely unknown band, although he did credit the vocal on the reverse (a straightforward reading of “High Up on a Hilltop”) to “Franks Wells,” which was actually just a pseudonym used to cover several different singers on Broadway over the years. The attribution doesn’t appear on our copy of Broadway 1227, although we’ve heard it does appear on others.  American Dance Bands on Record and Film erroneously credits the record to a Bill Haid group, with no reason given (banjoist Haid had been in and out of the Coon-Sanders Orchestra several times, but by this time he had his own band, a so-so outfit that was not up to Coon-Sanders’ level on any recordings we’ve heard so far). Earlier Paramount issues under the “Castle Farms” name still bear further investigation; the undocumented personnel listed by Rust for those sessions, although not disclosed as such, appear to be purely speculative.

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COON-SANDERS ORCHESTRA (as Castle Farms Serenaders): Tennessee Lazy

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): November 1928
Broadway 1227 (mx. 20924 – 2)
Paramount release: c. January 1929
Broadway release: Spring 1929 Montgomery Ward list

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COON-SANDERS ORCHESTRA (Joe Sanders, director and vocal): Tennessee Lazy

Chicago (Victor Lab, 925 N. Michigan Ave.): February 12, 1929
Victor 21939 (mx. BVE 48880 – 2)
Released: May 17, 1929 — Deleted: 1931

The Playlist • The Best of Blind Blake (1927–1929)

MSP_blake-ba_composite1

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BLIND BLAKE: One Time Blues

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. April 1927
Paramount 12479 (mx. 4363 – 2; ctl. 577)

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BLIND BLAKE: Bad Feeling Blues

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. April 1927
Paramount 12497 (mx. 4443 – 1; ctl. 697)

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BLIND BLAKE (with uncredited bones player):
That Will Never Happen No More

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. April 1927
Paramount 12497 (mx. 4468 – 2; ctl. 698)

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BLIND BLAKE:
Panther Squall Blues

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. May 1928
Paramount 12723 (mx. 20582 – )
From a tape dubbing provided by the late Mike Stewart.

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BLIND BLAKE (guitar and talking) with
CHARLIE SPAND (piano): Hastings Street

Richmond, IN (Gennett studio): August 17, 1929
Columbia 37336 (dubbing of Gennett mx. 15457)
Recorded for Paramount by Gennett, and originally issued on Paramount 12863. The Columbia dubbed reissue used for this transfer was part of a 1940s album set.

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The Playlist • Black Swan at the Beginning — Ethel Waters, Alberta Hunter, Katie Crippen (1921)

MSP_BS-2010-B_1st-state

A first-state pressing of Waters’ “Down Home Blues.” The record stayed in Black Swan’s
catalog until the end, and was reissued by Paramount. It was frequently re-pressed,
with examples from at least three different plants — NYRL, Fletcher-Olympic,
and BD&M — all confirmed,
so it appears with many variations in label
design and pressing characteristics.
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Folks are often disappointed when they hear early Black Swans for the first time and discover just how un-jazzy and un-bluesy they are. This, however, was Harlem in early 1921 — still dominated by cabaret- and vaudeville-blues singers and the ghost of Jim Europe, and definitely not a jazz haven just yet.

Be that as it may, the records are loaded with historical interest, and they have a certain charm if you can get past the plodding house-band accompaniments, directed in the early days by a very young and inexperienced Fletcher Henderson; so here are a few  of the best early offerings from the world’s second black-owned record company (hats off to George W. Broome, who founded the first one):

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KATIE CRIPPEN: Blind Man Blues

New York: c. March 1921 (Released May 1921)
Black Swan 2003 (mx. P 103 – 2)

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ETHEL WATERS (with house band, as CORDY WILLIAMS’ JAZZ MASTERS):
Down Home Blues

New York: c. April 1921 (Released July 1921)
Black Swan 2010 (mx. P 115 – 1)

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ALBERTA HUNTER (with house band, as HENDERSON’S NOVELTY ORCHESTRA):
How Long, Sweet Daddy, How Long

New York: c. May 1921 (Released July 1921)
Black Swan 2008 (mx. P 121 – 2)

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The Playlist • Kansas City Blues: Lottie Kimbrough Beaman (1924 and 1928)

CHAMP_15636-beaman.

LOTTIE BEAMAN (Acc. by Milas & Miles Pruitt): Honey Blues

Chicago: c. March 1924
Paramount 12201  (mx. 1695 – 1)

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LOTTIE BEAMAN (Acc. by Jimmy Blythe, piano; unknown, banjo): Mama Can’t Lose

Chicago: October 1924
Paramount  12235  (mx. 1904 – 1)

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LOTTIE BEAMAN, as LOTTIE EVERSON (possibly acc. by Miles Pruitt, guitar):
Rolling Log Blues

Richmond, IN:  August 21, 1928
Champion 15636  (mx. 14162)

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LOTTIE BEAMAN, as LOTTIE EVERSON (possibly acc. by Miles Pruitt, guitar):
Going Away Blues

Richmond, IN:  August 21, 1928
Champion 15591  (mx. 14163-A)
The accompanist for this session is not listed in the Gennett ledger. Pruitt is listed as “probable” in Dixon, Godrich & Rye’s Blues and Gospel Records 1890-1943.

The Playlist • Ragtime Accordion Classics (1915-1928)

MSP_bwy-1189A_20608-1Three ragtime pieces with some marked similarities, particularly Frank Salerno’s “Kent Street Blues,” which is a slight reworking of Pietro Deiro’s “Melody Rag.” The latter was originally titled “Philadelphia Blues”; although entered as such in the Victor files, the title never appeared on the record labels.

The third strain of “Melody Rag” has been plagiarized from time to time — as heard here on the Salerno recording, but more famously by Weiss & Baum in their 1949 hit, “Music! Music! Music! (Put Another Nickel In).”

These recordings and thousands of others (US and foreign) are detailed in The Ragtime Discography, 1894–1960: Cakewalks, Rags, and Novelties on Cylinders and 78, a multimedia CD available exclusively from Mainspring Press. In addition to the most detailed ragtime discography yet published, the CD includes 99 historic recordings in MP3 format, plus high-resolution reproductions of 50 rare ragtime sheet-music covers.

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PIETRO DEIRO: Melody Rag (a.k.a. Philadelphia Blues)

Camden NJ: October 5, 1915
Released: January 1916 — Deleted: January 1923
Victor 17895 (mx. B 16597 – 1)

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PIETRO J. FROSINI: New York Blues — Rag Classical

New York (79 Fifth Avenue): September 15 (or 16), 1916
Released: January 1917
Edison Blue Amberol cylinder 3052 (dubbed from disc mx. 4998-C)

The Edison studio cash book shows a combined payment for Frosini’s September 15 and 16 sessions; this recording appears to be from the earlier session, based on master numbers.

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FRANK SALERNO: Kent Street Blues

Chicago (Marsh Laboratories): c. May 1928
Broadway 1189 (NYRL mx. 20608 – 1)

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The Birth of Paramount Records: New York Recording Laboratories’ 1917 Incorporation Papers

One of the most persistent myths surrounding the New York Recording Laboratories (makers of Paramount records) is that the company was never legally incorporated. The misconception stems in part from testimony in a 1936 lawsuit (Wisconsin Chair Co. v. I. G. Ely Co., 91 S.W. 2d 913), in which it was stated — erroneously, as we now know — that NYRL “is not and was not at any time a corporation, a partnership, or an individual.”

However, NYRL was indeed incorporated — in Port Washington, Wisconsin, on July 2, 1917 — as the notarized copy of the incorporation filing shown below confirms. This  oversized document (from an early photostat, courtesy of Randy Stehle) is too large and faded to be easily legible online, so we’ve transcribed the most relevant portions at the end of the article.

NYRL did lose its corporate status in 1921, when (along with the United Phonographs Corporation, the original registrants of the Puritan trademark) it was merged with the parent Wisconsin Chair Company. UPC and NYRL were dissolved at that time. UPC was soon scuttled, but NYRL continued to operate, simply as a trade-name of Wisconsin Chair (although “Inc.” remained on the labels for several more years) — apparently cause for confusion in the 1936 testimony.

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MSP_NYRL-incorp-1917

Articles of Organization
Of
The New York Recording Laboratories

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Article I.

The undersigned, all of them adults and residents of the state of Wisconsin, have associated and do hereby associate themselves together for the purpose of forming a corporation under Chapter 86 of the Wisconsin Statutes; the business and purpose of which corporation shall be the manufacture and selling of phonograph records, phonographs, phonograph parts, and the manufacture and sale of all things incident to the use in connection with the same…

Article II.

The name of the said corporation shall be the New York Recording Laboratories, and its creation shall be in the city of Port Washington, county of Ozaukee, and state of Wisconsin.

Article III.

The capital stock of said corporation shall be Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000) and same shall consist of one hundred (100) shares each of which said shares be of the face or par value of One Hundred Dollars ($100).

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[Articles IV – VII deal with corporate structure and regulations, stockholder voting rights, and options for amendment.]

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In Witness Thereof, we have hereunto set our hand and seals this 2nd day of July, A.D. 1917.

F. A. Dennett
J. M. Bostwick
J. R. Dennett
Edward J. Barrett
O. E. Moesser

… [The above signed] doth each for himself depose and say that he is one of the original signers of the above declaration and articles, that the above and foregoing is a true, correct, and complete copy of said original declaration and articles and of the whole thereof.

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For the most detailed history ever published of Paramount records and the people and companies behind them, be sure to check out the second, revised and expanded edition of Alex van der Tuuk’s Paramount’s Rise and Fall, available from Mainspring Press and many libraries.