Discographic Update: Corrected Personnel for the 1927 Okeh “Goofus Five” Sessions, from Ed Kirkeby’s Payroll Book

We continue with our corrections to the undocumented (and thus, often very incorrect) personnel listings in Johnson & Shirley’s American Dance Bands on Films and Records, successor to Brian Rust’s American Dance Band Discography.

The following listings, taken from Ed Kirkeby’s payroll books,  correct ADBFR’s speculative personnel for the 1927 “Goofus Five” sessions at Okeh’s New York studio. Names in boldface are correct personnel, from the payroll books. Struck-out names are incorrect guesses that appear in ADBFR. See the previous posting for more information on the Kirkeby archival materials.

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New York: February 8, 1927

“Farewell Blues” (mx. 80402) / “I Wish I Could Shimmy Like My Sister Kate” (mx. 80403) / “Some of These Days” (mx. 80404)

 

Tpt: Chelsea Quealey  Roy Johnston

Tbn: Abe Lincoln  Ivan Johnston

Reeds: Sam Ruby, Bobby Davis, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Irving Brodsky  Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

____________________

 

New York: April 14, 1927

“Muddy Water” (mx. 80730) / “The Wang Wang Blues” (mx. 80731) / “The Whisper Song” (mx. 80732) / “Arkansas Blues” (mx. 80733)

 

Tpt: Chelsea Quealey

Tbn: Abe Lincoln  [none listed]

Reeds: Sam Ruby, Bobby Davis, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Irving Brodsky  Jack Russin

Bjo / Gtr: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

____________________


New York: June 15, 1927

“Lazy Weather” (mx. 81015) / “Vo-Do-Do-De-O Blues” (mx. 81016) / “Ain’t That a Grand and Glorious Feeling?” (mx. 81017)

 

Tpt: Chelsea Quealey

Tbn: Al Philburn  Tommy Dorsey

Reeds: Bobby Davis, Sam Ruby, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

Vocal: Ed Kirkeby

____________________

 

New York: August 10 and 12, 1927

August 10: “Clementine” (mx. 81207) / “Nothin’ Does It Like It Used to Do-Do-Do” (mx. 81208)

August 12: “I Left My Sugar Standing in the Rain” (mx. 81219; originally scheduled for August 10 session)

 

Tpt: Chelsea Quealey

Tbn: Al Philburn  [none listed]

Reeds: Bobby Davis, Sam Ruby, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

Note: The vocalist (Beth Challis) was not on Kirkeby’s payroll.

____________________

New York: November 3, 1927

“Blue Baby, Why Are You Blue?” (mx. 81772) / “Make My Cot Where the Cot-Cot-Cotton Grows” (mx. 81773) / “Is She My Girl Friend?” (mx. 81774)

 

Tpt: Henry Levine, Chelsea Quealey

Tbn: Al Philburn

Reeds: Bob Fallon, Pete Pumiglio, Spencer Clark

Pno: Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

Note: The vocalist (Les Reis) was not on Kirkeby’s payroll.

Discographic Update: Corrected Personnel for Gennett 1926–1927 “Vagabonds” (California Ramblers) Sessions, from Ed Kirkeby’s Payroll Books

We continue with our corrections to the undocumented (and thus, often very incorrect) personnel listings in Johnson & Shirley’s American Dance Bands on Films and Records, successor to Rust’s American Dance Band Discography.

The following listings, taken from Ed Kirkeby’s payroll books,  correct ADBFR’s speculative personnel for the California Ramblers’ 1926–1927 “Vagabonds” sessions at the Starr Piano Company’s Gennett studio in New York. Names in boldface are confirmed in the payroll books. Struck-out names are incorrect guesses that appear in ADBFR. Perhaps the most important correction to note is the absence of Tommy Dorsey on all of these records.

In addition to Ed Kirkeby’s “diaries” and payroll books (two separate sets of documents, which when merged provide a very complete picture of each session), we are using Perry Armagnac’s unpublished annotations, which were made with Mr. Kirkeby’s personal assistance in the early 1950s. At that time, Kirkeby was able to clear up some of the ambiguities in his files, which included providing full names for some of his lesser-known part-time musicians (generally, only last names were entered), and the instruments they played. In other cases, he was unable to recall full details; rather than guess (although in some cases the answers seem fairly obvious), we’ve listed those personnel as [?],  to avoid muddling the original data.

 

___________________________________________

New York: March 19, 1926

“Gimme a Little Kiss” (mxs. X-43) / “Could I? I Certainly Could (mx. X-44) / “I’d Climb the Highest Mountain” (mx. X-45)

 

Tpts: Chelsea Quealy, Frank Cush  Leo McConville, Roy Johnston

Tbn: Abe Lincoln  George Troup

Reeds: Sam Ruby, Bobby Davis, Arnold Brillhart, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Irving Brodsky  F. Fabian Storey

Bjo: Tommy Felline  [?]

Percussion: Stan King  Herb Weil

Unknown instrument(s): [?] Deacon, [?] Frink

Note: The vocalist (Arthur Fields) was not on EK’s payroll.

____________________

New York: August 19, 1926

“Looking at the World Thru’ Rose Colored Glasses” (mx. X-227) / “On the Riviera” (mx. X-228) / “The Birth of the Blues” (mx. X-229 — Rejected per Gennett ledger; remade by Willie Creager’s Orchestra on X-259*)

 

Tpts: Frank Cush  Chelsea Quealy, Roy Johnston

Tbn: Tommy Dorsey  George Troup

Reeds: Arnold Brillhart, Bobby Davis, Sam Ruby, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Irving Brodsky  Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

Unknown instrument(s): [?] Stark

* Musicians’ pay was reduced proportionally (to two titles from three) because X-229 was rejected. ADBFR’s claim that X-229 appeared on Champion 15079 is unconfirmed. If you have the Ramblers’ version of this record and can supply confirming photo and audio evidence, please let us know.

Kirkeby paid himself $26.65 for unspecified services on this session.

____________________

 

New York: “Seeley — Starr,” January 14, 1927

“College Girls” (—) / “Sam, the Old Accordion Man” (—)

It is not certain that this was a California Ramblers session. It is listed only in Kirkeby’s logbook; no corresponding entry has been found in his payroll book or the Gennett ledgers. Although it’s tempting to speculate this refers to Blossom Seeley, we’ve so far found no evidence to support that.

 

_____________________

New York: May 2, 1927

“I’m Back in Love Again” (mx. GEX-635) / “Yes She Do — No She Don’t” (mx. GEX-636) / “Sluefoot” (mx. GEX-637)

 

Tpts: Frank CushChelsea Quealy

Tbn: Tommy Dorsey  Edward Lapp

Reeds: Arnold Brillhart, Bobby Davis, Bob Fallon, Sam Ruby, Adrian Rollini

Pno: Irving Brodsky  Jack Russin

Bjo: Tommy Felline

Percussion: Herb Weil

Unknown instrument(s): [?] Black

“Red Label” Gramophone Records — Highlights from the February 1904 G&T Catalog

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Many of the records in Gramophone & Typewriter’s February 1904 catalog were also issued in the U.S. as Victor Imported Red Seal Records. Details of those issues (many of which are now quite rare, and correspondingly expensive) can be found in John Bolig’s Victor Red Seal Discography, Vol. I .

Victor soon adopted a policy of replacing imported recordings like these with their own domestically recorded versions whenever possible, as happened with many of the Caruso and Plancon offerings.

You can find more on the early history of the Red Seal in A Phonograph in Every Home: The Evolution of the American Recording Industry, 1909-1919, also available from Mainspring Press.

..

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Discography Update • Correct Personnel for Ted Wallace’s Campus Boys (1930 Columbia Sessions)

We continue with corrections to the Ed Kirkeby personnel listings found in Jazz Records (Rust) and American Dance Bands (Johnson & Shirley). The corrected data below, for the 1930 “Ted Wallace” dates at Columbia, are all from Kirkeby’s Payroll Book #4.

(For those not familiar with Kirkeby’s papers, there are two main components of discographical interest — the “dairies” (which we refer to in these postings as “session logs”) and the payroll books. “Diary” entries often made were before the actual sessions took place, and as such, they are not always reliable. The payroll books show which musicians were paid after each date, and thus can be taken as authoritative. Brian Rust (JR) apparently did have access to some of the “diaries” as claimed (and that information was recycled in ADB), but obviously neither he nor the Johnson-Shirley group consulted some of the payroll books.)

For comparison’s sake, we’ve also shown the JR and ADB personnel listings, with the erroneous guesses crossed-out. ADB gives very specific (albeit often incorrect) personnel, with no sources cited, although obviously not from the Kirkeby files. On the other hand, JR shows only a “collective personnel,” consisting of forty-one names comprising anyone even marginally connected with Kirkeby at the time (while managing to miss a number of musicians who actually were present) — proof of the axiom that if you throw enough crap at the wall, some of it’s bound to stick.

Here are our previous postings correcting the bad JR-ADB data using Kirkeby’s session logs and payroll books:

Correct Personnel and Dates for the California Ramblers’ 1929–1930 Grey Gull Sessions
Correct Personnel and Dates for the California Ramblers’ 1927–1928 Cameo Sessions
Correct Personnel for Grey Gull’s July 1926 “Little Pilgrims” Session (California Ramblers)
Correct Personnel for Gennett’s 1926 “Vagabonds” Sessions (California Ramblers)
Correct Personnel and Date for Crown’s 1930 “Lloyd Newton Varsity Eleven” Session
The Missing May 1931 Ed Kirkeby – Billy Murray Sessions (American Record Corp.)


TED WALLACE & HIS CAMPUS BOYS: Columbia, 1930 — Part 1

 New York: January 18, 1930

When You’re Smiling (mx. W 149782)
What Do I Care? (mx. W 149783)

Fred Van Eps, Jr. (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Purvis]

Frank Cush (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Chelsea Quealy]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ted Raph]

Pete Pumiglio (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Pete Pumiglio]

Paul Mason (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Paul Mason]

Carl Orrick [Orech] (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Harold Marcus]

Chauncey Gray (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Chauncey Gray]

Tommy Felline (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Tommy Felline]

Ward Lay (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Stan King (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Stan King]


 

 New York: February 19, 1930

Get Happy  (mxs. W 149999 [Columbia], W 195080 [export], W 100366 [budget   labels], W 495022 [American Odeon-Parlophone])
Sweetheart Trail  (mx. W 150000 [Columbia], W 195083 [export], W 100363 [budget labels], W 405023 [American Odeon-Parlophone])

Don McCarter (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Jack Purvis]

(?) Condon (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Chelsea Quealy]

Herb Winfield (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Al Philburn]

Paul Mason (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Paul Mason]

Tommy Bohn (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Sam Ruby]

(?) Herbert (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Pete Pumiglio]

Tony Zangh (crossed out, with Zonchi substituted) (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Chauncey Gray]

Mike Poveromo (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Tommy Felline]

Tex Hurst (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Herb Weil (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Stan King]

One of the Feldkamps was also paid $25 for this session (which Feldkamp, and in what capacity, are not noted)


 

New York: March 14, 1930

The Stein Song (mx. W 150088)
Telling It to the Daisies (mx. W 150089)

Don McCarter (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Leo McConville]

Tony Giannelli (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Fuzzy Farrar or Tommy Gott]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Tommy Dorsey]

Pete Pumiglio (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Pete Pumiglio]

Paul Mason (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: no second reed man listed]

Tommy Bohn (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: No third reed man listed]

Irving Brodsky (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Chauncey Gray]

Tommy Felline (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Tommy Felline]

Tex Hurst (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Joe Tarto]

Herb Weil (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Stan King]


 

New York: July 10, 1930

Hittin’ the Bottle (mx. W 150643)
Little White Lies (mx. W 150644)

Fred Van Eps, Jr. (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Jack Purvis]

Tony Giannelli (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: no second trumpet listed]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Carl Loeffler]

Joe Gillespie (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Pete Pumiglio]

Ed Blanchard (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Tommy Bohn]

Elmer Feldkamp (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Elmer Feldkamp]

Lew Cobey (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Lew Cobey]

Ed Sexton (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ed Sexton]

Ward Lay (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Jack Powers (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Powers]


New York: August 12, 1930

Tomorrow Is Another Day (mx. W 150701)
Don’t Tell Her (What’s Happened to Me) (mx. W 150702, also dubbed to W 91937 and W 91938 as part of two radio-program transcriptions)

Jack Purvis (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Purvis]

(?) Osborne (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: no second trumpet listed]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Carl Loeffler]

Bobby Davis (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Pete Pumiglio]

Paul Mason (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Tommy Bohn]

Elmer Feldkamp (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Elmer Feldkamp]

Lew Cobey (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Lew Cobey]

Ed Sexton (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ed Sexton]

Ward Lay (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Jack Powers (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Powers]


 

New York: September 23, 1930

My Baby Just Cares for Me (mx. W 150837)
Sweet Jennie Lee (mx. W 150838)

Jack Purvis (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Purvis]

Don McCarter (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: no second trumpet listed]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Carl Loeffler]

Bobby Davis (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Bobby Davis]

Tommy Bohn (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Tommy Bohn]

Pete Pumiglio (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Pete Pumiglio]

Lew Cobey (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Lew Cobey]

Ed Sexton (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ed Sexton]

Ward Lay (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Jack Powers (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Powers]

The payroll book also lists “D. Dixon” without further identification.


New York: October 21, 1930 [no session log; date listed in payroll book only]

Fraternity Blues (mx. W 150894)
Football Medley (My Collegiate Man) (mx. W 150895)

Jack Purvis (trumpet)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Purvis]

— (second trumpet: none in payroll list)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Fred Van Eps, Jr.]

Carl Loeffler (trombone)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Carl Loeffler]

Bobby Davis (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Dick Dixon*]

Joe Gillespie (reeds)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: Joe Gillespie]

M. Dickson (violin)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Sam Hoffman and Sidney Harris]

Lew Cobey (piano)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Lew Cobey]

Ed Sexton (guitar)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ed Sexton]

Ward Lay (bass)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Ward Lay]

Jack Powers (drums)
[JR: “Collective” / ADB: probably Jack Powers]

*The last line of the payroll book entry, where singers usually were listed when used, shows “Dixon” (no first name), which normally was a pseudonym for vocalist Dick Robertson.


To be continued…

 

Discography Update • Personnel for the May 1931 Ed Kirkeby – Billy Murray Sessions

Jazz Records and American Dance Bands both lack personnel listings for Ed Kirkeby’s May 1931 American Record Corporation sessions with singer Billy Murray, so we present them here, as logged in Mr. Kirkeby’s session files. Unfortunately, the jazz content is negligible to non-existent, despite the presence of some excellent hot musicians.

Titles from the first date were issued under Kirkeby’s venerable “Varsity Eight” (California Ramblers) pseudonym, with vocal chorus credited to Murray. Titles from the May 22 session are vocal duets credited to Billy Murray & Walter Scanlan (the latter being Walter Van Brunt’s stage name), with a small group accompanying. The latter date marks Adrian Rollini’s return to the Kirkeby fold after a long absence.


 

New York: May 8, 1931 — American Record Corporation

Mickey Mouse (We All Love You So)  (mx. 10614)
Popeye (The Sailor Man)  (mx. 10615)
I Wanna Sing About You  (mx. 10616)

Personnel per Ed Kirkeby’s log: Jack Purvis, Fred Van Eps Jr. (trumpets); Carl Loeffler (trombone); Tommy Bohn, Paul Mason, Bobby Davis (reeds); Lew Cobey (piano); Ed Sexton (guitar); Ward Lay (bass); Jack Powers (percussion); Billy Murray (vocal)


New York: May 22, 1931 — American Record Corporation

Skippy  (mx. 10670)
Let a Little Pleasure Interfere with Business  (mx. 10671)

Personnel per Ed Kirkeby’s log: Jack Purvis (trumpet); Bobby Davis (alto saxophone); Adrian Rollini (bass saxophone); Lew Cobey (piano); Jack Powers (percussion); Billy Murray and Walter Van Brunt (as Walter Scanlan) (vocal)


 

Correct Personnel for the California Ramblers’ Late 1927—Early 1928 Cameo Sessions (from Ed Kirkeby’s Files)

Some more corrections to American Dance Bands on Records and Film California Ramblers personnel listings, this time for the December 1927 and February 1928 Varsity Eight sessions for Cameo. The compilers somehow missed this material in California Ramblers manager W. T. “Ed” Kirkeby’s logbook and payroll records.

This also offers an object lesson on the dangers of “collective personnel” — a euphemism for “If you throw enough names at the wall, maybe a few might stick.” Here’s ADBFR’s “collective personnel” for these sessions. The names in boldface turned out to be correct guesses. We’ve crossed out the bad guesses (most notably, Tommy Dorsey), which make up the majority (64%) of the listing:

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Angie Rattiner, Al King, Mickey Bloom, Fred Van Eps Jr., Frank Cush (trumpets); Ted Raph, Tommy Dorsey, Frank Ferretti, Chuck Campbell (trombones); Pete Pumigilo, Carl Orech, Harold Marcus (clarinets, alto saxes); Sam Ruby (tenor sax); Spencer Clark (bass sax); Chauncey Gray or Jack Russin (piano); Tommy Felline (banjo, guitar); Herb Weil or Chick Condon (drums).

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And now, the actual personnel who were hired for these sessions, from Ed Kirkeby’s files. As usual, Kirkeby did not enter first names or instruments; we’ve inserted the first names [in brackets] and usual instruments (in parentheses) of musicians who appear in his payroll records for this period. Musicians missing from ADBFR’s “collective personnel” are in underlined red type:

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December 1, 1927 (Cameo mxs. 2715 – 2717) — [Chelsea] Quealy, [Henry] Levine (trumpets); [Al] Philburn (trombone); [Pete] Pumiglio, [Bob] Fallon (reeds); Jack Russin (piano); [/?] Mahoney (banjo); [Hank] Stern (bass); [Herb] Weil (percussion)
.

February 3, 1928 (Cameo mxs. 2857 – 2859) — [Henry] Levine, [Fred] Van Eps [Jr.] (trumpets); [Al] Philburn (trombone); Bob Montgomery [first name listed in this case], [Sam] Ruby (saxophones); [Chauncey] Grey (piano); Joe La Faro (violin); [Tommy] Felline (banjo, guitar); [Hank] Stern (bass); [Herb] Weil (percussion)

More to come…

“Lloyd Dayton & his Music” Finally Identified (from the Ed Kirkeby Files)

Thanks to our recent research of Ed Kirkeby’s files in conjunction with the ongoing Pathé-Perfect and American Record Corporation projects, we’ve finally unearthed the true identity of the band ARC credited as “Lloyd Dayton & his Music” (which, to further confuse matters, was logged by ARC as “Fred MacDougall & his Orchestra”). It’s none other than Ed Kirkeby & his Orchestra, with his usual personnel of the period.

The compilers of The American Dance Band Discography and American Dance Bands on Records and Film obviously didn’t check for these in Kirkeby’s files. ADB shows all personnel as unknown and doesn’t mention Kirkeby. ADBFR makes a tiny bit of headway, mentioning a “reported” Kirkeby connection, guessing correctly Jack Purvis, and getting Dick Dixon partially correct (right name, wrong instrument), while leaving the rest blank.

The correct data from Kirkeby’s logbook and payroll files are shown below. First names (except Dixon’s) are not listed in either file; we’ve inserted [in brackets] the first names of musicians who are confirmed to have been on Kirkeby’s payroll in late 1930.

Kirkeby logged this as a Cameo session, but that label was discontinued a short time later, so the recordings instead appeared on Banner, Romeo, and other ARC brands. The session is headed “Three dogs” (i.e, throw-away “filler” tunes,  generally not even copyrighted) in Kirkeby’s log — a surprisingly honest appraisal, given that Kirkeby himself composed one of them!

October 10, 1930 (ARC mxs. 10131 – 10133, issued as Lloyd Dayton & his Music):

[Jack] Purvis (trumpet); Dick Dixon (first name listed in this case only; the beginning of the logbook session entry reads “Add trombone Dick Dixon,” but the name appears in the payroll record as “Dickson”); [Bobby] Davis, [Joe] Gillespie (reeds); [Sidney] Harris, [Sam] Hoffman (violins); [Lew] Cobey (piano); [Ed] Sexton (guitar); [Ward] Lay (string bass); [Jack] Powers (percussion)

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New Year’s Resolutions for Discographers

Every year we have to reject work from aspiring (or, in some sad cases, published) discographers because they fail to meet basic standards for original research and source documentation. Discography has grown up in the past few decades, evolving from a hobbyists’ free-for-all into a serious discipline grounded in established academic principles — which doesn’t mean it still can’t be fun, just that it’s finally outgrown an awkward adolescence.

For anyone thinking about compiling a detailed discography, I’d like to suggest a few New Year’s resolutions, which (except for #5) are pretty much what we were all taught in high school:

(1) Cite Your Sources. Especially for things like group personnel or pseudonym identification, which have a long history of being fabricated. And cite the source within close proximity to the facts in question; listing a source in the Acknowledgments and letting it go at that isn’t a source citation, it’s — well, an acknowledgment. The mantra here is “Who Says?” (courtesy of Tim Brooks’ ARSC review of a recent dance-band discography). To which I would add, “And how do they know?”

(2) Choose Your Sources Carefully. Original recording ledgers and other primary-source materials aren’t always available, but that doesn’t mean that the foggy memories of this-or-that musician, forty years after the fact, are an equally reliable substitute; nor that trade-paper blurbs (with a few exceptions) or band photos can tell you who was actually in the studio on a given date. Are sources like these worth noting in your work? Definitely. Are they absolute proof of anything? Not so much.

(3) Show Your Work. If your source is a conclusion that you or your associates reached on your own, state how you or they arrived at that conclusion. If it’s the result of careful, reasoned analysis based on compelling circumstantial evidence, say so. If it’s the result of some record-club buddies pulling an “I hear Bix” all-nighter, say that too (if you must include such material at all, which I hope you won’t). Either way, your readers need to know.

(4) Do Original Research. Most new discographies will necessarily revisit ground that’s already been covered to some extent in previously published works. However, simply cobbling together and republishing others’ work without adding any substantial new material or insights isn’t doing research, it’s doing plagiarism.

(5) Question Authority. Don’t perpetuate others’ errors in your work.Some “authorities” in the field haven’t followed the current literature or undertaken any significant new research in years. All discographers occasionally miss things or make mistakes; many fail to disclose that their material is anecdotal or speculative; and some just plain make things up. If something in a published discography or article looks fishy, revisit Resolution (4).

(6) If You Don’t Know, Say So (to quote Bert Williams). “Probably,” “possibly,” “uncertain,” and “unknown” aren’t dirty words. I’ll take them any day over undocumented guesswork passed off as fact.

 — Allan Sutton (Publisher, Mainspring Press)