Progress Report: “American Record Company and Producers, 1888 – 1950” (865 Entries, and Counting)

American Record Companies and Producers, 1888 – 1950:
Progress Report
By Allan Sutton

 

American Record Companies and Producers, 1888 – 1950 is on track to release online in mid-2018. For those of you not already familiar with the project, it covers in detail all American companies and producers of commercial recordings (cylinder and disc) from the beginning of commercial record production in the 1880s to the start of LP era in 1950.

Unlike my earlier American Record Labels and Companies, this work focuses primarily on the companies themselves. The label information is still there, of course, but is now incorporated within the entries on each label’s respective producer.

Not  covered are non-commercial and special-use recordings (radio transcriptions, film sound-track discs, audition recordings, etc.); children’s labels and educational or instructional records; one-off promotional or personal records, etc. You will find numerous jukebox-only labels, record divisions set up by schlocky music publishers to plug tunes the major labels wouldn’t take, and short-lived ventures whose only purpose seems to have been to sell off their masters to larger companies as quickly as possible, deposit the check, and shut down.

You’ll also meet a colorful cast of characters, ranging from the industry’s true heroes to an American Nazi, a Soviet spy, a four-time loser who just didn’t know when to quit, any number of record pirates, and a Texas furniture dealer-turned-studio owner who ran for president on an eerily familiar “throw the Washington bums out and let us real smart business guys run the country” platform (he lost; folks weren’t quite so gullible back then).

Plans are for this to be an online-only publication, because of the opportunity afforded to revise and expand on-the-fly, something essential with a work of this scope and magnitude. Headings to each entry include date range for record production, office and studio addresses, master sources, pressing plants used, and labels  produced. Entries range from several paragraphs to twenty pages, and full source citations (mainly primary-source) appear in each. There are no plans to illustrate the work at the moment, but that’s always an option as things evolve.

As of today, the following 865 entries are essentially “complete” and in final fact-checking and editing (an additional 125 entries not listed here are still in various stage of completion):

 

A-1 RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   A-1 RECORDS OF AMERICA  (Discs)  •   ABBEY RECORD CORPORATION / ABBEY RECORDS, INC. / PETER DORAINE, INC.  (Discs)   •   ACME RADIO & RECORD CORPORATION, et al.  (Discs)   •   ADMIRAL RECORDS, INC. / ADAM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ADVANCE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ADVENTURE RECORD COMPANY / ADVENTURE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ADVERTISER PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   ADVERTISERS RECORDING SERVICE, INC.  (Discs)   •   AEOLIAN COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   AETNA MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AGUILA RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALABAMA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   ALADDIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ALBEN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALCO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALCO RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALERT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ALEGENE SOUND AND RADIO COMPANY / ALGENE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ALLEGRO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ALLENDER RECORD DISTRIBUTORS  (Discs)   •   ALLENTOWN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALLIED (PHONOGRAPH AND) RECORD MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ALPHA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ALVIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AM RECORDS / AMERICAN MUSIC  (Discs)   •   AMBASSADOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN ELITE, INC. (Discs)   •   AMERICAN GLOSSITE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MUSIC, ARTS AND DRAMA  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN JAZZ, INC.  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN ODEON CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION SERVICE  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING ARTISTS / ARA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN TALKING MACHINE COMPANY [I]  (Cylinders)   •   AMERICAN TALKING MACHINE COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN VITAPHONE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICANA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMIGO MUSIC PUBLISHING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMMOR RECORD CORPORATION / AMMOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMUKE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ANTILLIAN MUSIC FEATURES, INC.  (Discs)   •   APEX RECORDING LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   APEX RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   APOLLO RECORDS, INC. / RAINBOW RECORD SHOP  (Discs)   •   APPLIANCES COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   ARCADIA RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   ARCO RECORDS   •   ARDEN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ARDENE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ARISTA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARISTOCRAT RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARROW PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ART SERVICE MUSIC  (Discs)   •   ARTIST RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ARTISTIC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ARTISTS MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARTO COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   ARVID RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ASA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ASCH RECORDING STUDIOS / ASCH RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED CINEMA STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED DISTRIBUTORS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED STUDIOS BROADCASTING AND RECORDING  (Discs)   •   ATLAS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ATLANTIC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ATOMIC RECORD COMPANY / ATOMIC, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUBURN BUTTON WORKS  (Discs)   •   AUDEON CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AUDIENCE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUDIO COMPANY OF AMERICA / ACA RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUTOGRAPH RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AVALON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AYO RECORDS  (Discs)

B. J. EXPLOITATION COMPANY (Discs) •   BACCHANAL RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)  •   BACHMAN STUDIO  (Discs)   •   BACIGALUPI, PETER & SONS  (Cylinders)   •   BACLORA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BALDWIN RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BALKAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BALLEN RECORD COMPANY / GOTHAM RECORD CORPORATION)  (Discs)   •   BANDWAGON RECORDS, INC. / BENNETT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BANNER RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BARTHEL RECORDS / BARTHEL, INC.  (Discs)   •   BATT MASIAN COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BEBE DANIELS, INC.   •  BEE BEE BEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORD COMPANY / BELL RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORD COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BEL-TONE RECORDING CORPORATION (I)  (Discs)   •   BELTONE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BERLINER COMPANIES: American Gramophone Company; United States Gramophone Company; Berliner Gramophone Company  (Discs)   •   BESA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BETTINI PHONOGRAPH LABORATORY  (Cylinders)   •   BIBLETONE  (Discs)   •   BIG NICKEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLACK AND WHITE RECORDS / BLACK AND WHITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE DANUBE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLU-DISC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE BONNET MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE LABEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLUE NOTE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLUE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE RIBBON MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE STAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLU-WHITE RECORD COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   BONEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BONGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOP RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BORNAND MUSIC BOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOST RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOSTON TALKING MACHINE COMPANY / PHONO-CUT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRADLEY, RICHARD AND ASSOCIATES  (Discs)   •   BRIDGEPORT DIE & MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRINCKERHOFF & COMPANY, INC. / BRINCKERHOFF STUDIOS, INC.–TIME ABROAD / GENERAL SOUND CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BROADCAST RECORDERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BROADCAST RECORDING STUDIOS / BROADCAST RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BRONZE RECORDING STUDIO / BRONZE RECORD & RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BROOME, GEORGE  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK RADIO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BULLET RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY / BULLEIT ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   BURKE & ROUS  (Cylinders)   •   BURNETTE, SMILEY  (Discs)   •   BURT (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY, THE  (Discs)

C & S PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   C. H. BOURNE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CADET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CADILLAC RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   CADILLAC RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   CALIFORNIA RECORD (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY (Discs)   •   CALIFORNIA RECORDING COMPANY (Discs)   •   CAMEO RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CANZONET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAPITAL SOUND STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   CAPITOL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CAPITOL ROLL & RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAPRI RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CARDINAL RECORDS, INC.   •   CA-SONG RECORD COMPANY / AUTO-PHOTO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORD COMPANY ( (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORDS, INC. (I)  (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORDS, INC. (II)  (Discs)   •   CAVALCADE MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAVALIER RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CECILLE MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CELPS RECORD (& SUPPLY) COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CELTIC RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CENTRAL NEBRASKA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   CHAMPION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHAMPION RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CHANCE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHANGER PUBLICATIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHARLES E. WASHBURN COMPANY / COAST RECORD (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY / RODEO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CHARM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHARLES ECKARD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHARTER RECORDS  (Discs)  •   CHEROKEE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO CENTRAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CHICAGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CHIEF RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CINCINNATI RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CIRCLE RECORDS / CIRCLE SOUND, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLARK PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLARION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLARION RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLASSIC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLAUDE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLEF RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLIPPER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CLOVER RECORDS COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   CLUB RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CO-ART RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COBRA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COLEMAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COLLECTORS ITEMS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COLORADO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY / COLORADO AND UTAH PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY AND RELATED COMPANIES: American Graphophone Company; Columbia Graphophone Company; Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company; Columbia Phonograph Company, Inc.; Columbia Phonograph Company, General  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   COLUMBIA RECORDING CORPORATION / COLUMBIA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COMAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COMET, INC.  (Discs)   •   COMMODORE MUSIC SHOP / COMMODORE RECORD CO., INC.  (Discs)   •   COMPO COMPANY, LTD. / H. S. BERLINER LABORATORIES (New York branch)  (Discs)   •   COMMAND RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COMMERCIAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COMPASS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CONCERT HALL SOCIETY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CONCERT PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Cylinders)   •   CONSOLIDATED PHONOGRAPH COMPANIES, LTD. / CONSOLIDATED PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CONSOLIDATED RECORD(ING) CORPORATION / CONSOLIDATED RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   CONTINENTAL PHONOGRAPH AND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CONTINENTAL RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   COOK LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   CORMAC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CORONET RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COSMOPOLITAN RECORDS, INC. / COSMO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COURTNEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COVA RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   COVERED WAGON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COWBOY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COZY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CRITERION LABORATORIES / CRITERION RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CRYSTAL RECORDING STUDIO  (Discs)   •   CRYSTAL TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CRYSTALETTE RECORDS OF CALIFORNIA / CRYSTALETTE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CUDAHY RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)

D. E. BOSWELL & COMPANY (Cylinders) •   DAMON RECORDING STUDIOS, INC. / DAMON TRANSCRIPTION LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   DANA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DANCELAND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DAVIS, JOE: Beacon Record Company / Celebrity Records / Joe Davis Record Company / Davis Record Corporation / Jay-Dee Records  (Discs)   •   DAY DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DE LUXE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   DECCA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   DELMAC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DELRAY RECORDING COMPANY / PARADISE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DELVAR RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DERBY RECORDS CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DIAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DIAMOND RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   DIAMOND RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DISCOVERY RECORDS, INC. / DISCOVERY RECORDS OF NEW YORK, INC.  (Discs)   •   DOLPHIN, JOHN: Dolphin’s of Hollywood / Recorded in Hollywood  (Discs)  •   DOME RECORDS (INC.)  (Discs)   •   DOMESTIC TALKING MACHINE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOMINO PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOMINO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DONETT HIT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DOWN BEAT RECORDING COMPANY / SWING BEAT RECORDS / SWING TIME RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOWN HOME CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOWN HOME RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOWN RIVER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DUDLEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DUKE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DUPLEX PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DURIUM PRODUCTS CORPORATION / DURIUM PRODUCTS, INC.  (Discs)

E. A. EILY RECORD COMPANY (Discs) •   E. O’BYRNE De WITT & SON(S) / JAMES O’BYRNE DeWITT, INC.  (Discs)   •   E. T. HERZOG RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   E. T. PAULL MUSIC COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   EAGLE RECORD COMPANY / ABC-EAGLE RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   EBONY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ECHO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ECHO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EDISON, THOMAS A.: Edison Phonograph Works; National Phonograph Company; North American Phonograph Company; Thomas A. Edison, Inc.  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   EDISON PHONOGRAPH COMPANY OF OHIO  (Cylinders)   •   EKKO RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ELECTRIC RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   ELECTRO-VOX RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   EMANON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMBASSY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMERALD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMERSON PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)  •   EMERSON RECORDING LABORATORIES, INC.  (Discs)   •   EMPEY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE BROADCASTING SYSTEM  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE RECORD COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ENCORE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ENGLEWOOD RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ENTERPRISE RECORDS (INC.)  (Discs)   •   ESLAVA RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ESQUIRE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ETNA RECORDING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   EVERSTATE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EVERYBODYS RECORD, INC.  (Discs)   •   EXCELSIOR PHONOGRAPH COMPANY / EXCELSIOR & MUSICAL PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   EXCELSIOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EXCLUSIVE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EXNER RECORD COMPANY / F. B. EXNER  (Discs)

F AND P RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS SINGERS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   FANFARE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FARGO RECORDS  (Discs)  •   FAVORITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FBC DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FEDERAL RECORD CORPORATION  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   FINE ARTS RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FINE RECORDING COMPANY / FINE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   FLETCHER RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   FLINT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   FLORA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FLORIDA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   FLORIDA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FM RECORDS / FM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FOLKRAFT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FOLKWAYS RECORDS & SERVICE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   FORTUNE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   49th STATE HAWAII RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRANK’S FOLK TUNE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   FRAN-TONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FREEDOM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRANWIL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRIENDS OF RECORDED MUSIC, THE  (Discs)   •   FRONTIER RECORDS  (Discs)

GAELIC (PHONOGRAPH) RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   GALA RECORD COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GAMUT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GEE BEE RECORDS   •   GEDDINS, ROBERT L. (BOB): Big Town Recordings; Down Town Recording, Inc.; Cava-Tone Recording  (Discs)   •   GEM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GENE AUSTIN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GENERAL PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GENNETT RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   GEORGIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   G.I. RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GILT-EDGE RECORD COMPANY / 4 STAR RECORD COMPANY, INC  (Discs)   •   GLOBE DISTRIBUTORS  (Discs)   •   GLOBE PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   GLOBE RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   GLOBE RECORD COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   GLO TONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GOLD MEDAL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOLD-RAIN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLD SEAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLD TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLDBAND RECORD COMPANY / GOLDBAND RECORDING STUDIO  (Discs)   •   GOLDEN RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOOD TIME JAZZ  (Discs)   •   GOTHAM RECORD COMPANY / GOODY RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GRAMOPHONE SHOP, THE  (Discs)   •   GRAND CENTRAL MUSIC COMPANY / REGO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GRAND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GREATER NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   GREEK RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GREEN RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   GREGOL ENTERPRISES  (Discs)   •   GREGORY RECORD COMPANY / BOBBY GREGORY RECORDS / CATHY-BOBBY GREGORY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GREY GULL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   GRIMES MUSIC PUBLISHERS / CLEF PUBLICATIONS  (Discs)   •   GUILD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOLD STAR RECORDS   •   GULF RECORD COMPANY, INC.

H & M LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   HAMP-TONE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HANDY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HAPPINESS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARDING, ROGER  (Cylinders)   •   HARDMAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HARGAIL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARMONIA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   HARMONY RECORD COMPANY   •   HARMONY RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   HARMONY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARMS, KAISER & HAGEN  (Cylinders)   •   HARRIS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HARRY LIM RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   HART-VAN RECORD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HAVEN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HAWTHORNE & SHEBLE [MANUFACTURING] COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   HEADLINE RECORD CORPORATION OF NEW YORK  (Discs)   •   HEART RECORDS, INC.  (Disc)   •   HIGH TIME RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HI-LITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)  •   HIT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORDS (OF HOLLYWOOD)  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD ENTERPRISES, INC.  •   HOLLYWOOD INTERNATIONAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD (PHONOGRAPH) RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD STAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLMES ROYAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOT RECORD SOCIETY / H. R. S. RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   HOT ROD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOUSTON RECORDS  (Discs)  •   HOWARD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HUB RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HUCKSTERS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HUNTING, RUSSELL  (Cylinders)   •   HY-TONE RECORDING COMPANY / HY-TONE MANUFACTURING & DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)

IDEAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   IDESSA MALONE DISTRIBUTORS / IDESSA MALONE ENTERPRISES / STAFF RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORD COMPANY, INC. (II)  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IMPRESARIO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   INDESTRUCTIBLE PHONOGRAPHIC RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   INDEPENDENT RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   INDIGO RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL PHONOGRAPH AND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORDS AGENCY  (Discs)   •   IOWA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   ISLAND MUSIC AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ISRAEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IVORY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

J. B. ALLISON RECORDING LABORATORIES • J. O. B. RECORDS  (Discs)   •   J. W. MYERS STANDARD PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   JADE RECORD COMPANY   •   JAMBOREE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   JAMES D. VAUGHAN, PUBLISHER  (Discs)   •   JAZZ DISC  (Discs)   •   JAZZ INFORMATION RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JAZZ LTD.  (Discs)   •   JAZZ MAN RECORD SHOP  (Discs)   •   JAZZOLOGY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JEWEL RECORD COMPANY (I)  •   JEWEL RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   JOCO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JOHN CURRIE ENTERPRISES  (Discs)   •   JONES (RECORDING) LABORATORIES / JONES RESEARCH SOUND PRODUCTS  (Discs)   •   JUBILEE RECORDS COMPANY, INC. / JAY-GEE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   JUKE BOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   JUMP RECORDS  (Discs)

KANSAS CITY TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KANSAS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KAPPA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   KARL ZOMAR LIBRARY, THE / COLUMBINE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   KEEN-O-PHONE COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)  •   KEM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   KENTUCKY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KEYNOTE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   KHOURY’S RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   KING JAZZ, INC.  (Discs)   •   KING RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   KISMET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

LA BONITA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LA MARR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LABORATOR ED. JEDLICKA  (Cylinders)   •   LABORATORY ASSOCIATION, THE (Discs)   •   LAMB’S RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   LAMBERT COMPANY, THE  (Cylinders)   •   LAMPLIGHTER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LARK RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LASSO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LATIN AMERICAN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LAURENT RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   LEE SALES COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   LEDA RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LEEDS & CATLIN COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   LEI RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   LEO KUPANA’I STUDIO  (Discs)   •   LESLIE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY MUSIC SHOP(S)  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   LIBERTY RECORD COMPANY [I – Hollywood] / BLAZON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY RECORD COMPANY [II – New York]  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LIBRARY OF CONGRESS  (Discs)   •   LIFE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LIFE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINCOLN, BENJAMIN  (Discs)   •   LINCOLN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LINDEN RECORDINGS / LINDEN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINDWOOD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LITTLE WONDER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LISSEN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LLOYD’S NOVELTY AND CURIO SHOP  (Discs)   •   LONDON GRAMOPHONE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   LONE STAR MUSIC PUBLISHERS   •   LONE STAR PUBLISHING AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LOUISIANA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, LTD.  (Cylinders)   •   LUCKY 7 RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LYRAPHONE COMPANY OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   LYRIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)

M & S DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   M & S ELECTRIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MACY’S RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MacGREGOR & SOLLIE, INC. / MacGREGOR & INGRAM RECORDING LABORATORIES / MacGREGOR TRANSCRIPTIONS STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   MAESTRO MUSIC COMPANY / MAESTRO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MACKSOUD, A. J.  (Discs)   •   MAGNOLIA RECORDS COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAIN STEM MUSIC SHOP  (Discs)   •   MAIN STREET RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MAJESTIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC. / MAJESTIC RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MAJESTIC RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAJOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MALOOF PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MANHATTAN MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MANHATTAN RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   MANOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MAR-KEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARSH LABORATORIES, INC.  (Discs)   •   MARSHALL, CHARLES  (Cylinders)   •   MARSHALL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARVEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARVEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARY HOWARD RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   MASTER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MASTER RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MASTERTONE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAUNAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MAYFAIR RECORD & RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MELFORD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELLO-STRAIN RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   MELLOW MUSIC SHOP / MELLOW RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MEL-MAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELMORE, INC.  (Discs)   •   MELODISC RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELODY LANE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELODY MODERNE, INC. / MEMO RECORDS CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MELODY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MELODY TRAIL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELROSE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELTZER, SAM  (Discs)   •   MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE  (Discs)   •   MERCURY RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MERIT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MERO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   METROPOLITAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   METROPOLITAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   METROTONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   M-G-M RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MICHIGAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MIDA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MIDGET MUSIC, INC. / MIDGET MUSIC PRODUCTIONS / FIDELITY RECORDS [I]  (Discs)   •   MILLER PUBLICATIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MINNESOTA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MIRACLE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MIRROR RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   MISSOURI PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   MODERN MUSIC RECORDS / MODERN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MONARCH RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MONROE, JOHN  (Cylinders)   •   MONTANA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   MORRISON MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MOTIF RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MOVIETONE MUSIC CORPORATION   •   MURRAY SINGER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSIC FOR SOCIETY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MUSIC, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSIC-MART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ON PARADE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC YOU ENJOY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSICAL PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MUSICRAFT CORPORATION / MUSICRAFT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUTUAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUZAK, INC. / ASSOCIATED MUSIC PUBLISHERS RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)

NATIONAL FILM AND RECORDING COMPANY / RICHARD BRADLEY AND ASSOCIATES  (Discs)   •   NATIONAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NATIONAL RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   NATION’S FORUM  (Discs)   •   NATURAL HIT RECORD COMPANY, A  (Discs)   •   NEBRASKA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW ENGLAND PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW JAZZ RECORD COMPANY / PRESTIGE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   NEW JERSEY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW MUSIC QUARTERLY RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW YORK RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   NEWARK RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   NORCROSS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   NORDSKOG PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   NORTH AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   NUMELODY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   NUTMEG RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)

OHIO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   OHIO TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OKEH PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   OKLAHOMA TORNADO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OLD DOMINION PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   OLYMPIC DISC RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   OPERA RECORD COMPANY / OPERA RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OPERA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   OPERAPHONE COMPANY / OPERAPHONE MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ORA NELLE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ORPHEUM RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ORPHEUS RECORD AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OTTO HEINEMAN PHONOGRAPH SUPPLY COMPANY, INC. (Discs)

PACE PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION / BLACK SWAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACEMAKER RECORD AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC COAST RECORD CORPORATION, LTD.  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC PHONOGRAPH AGENCY / PACIFIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   PAGE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PALDA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PAN-AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS / PAN-AM TRANSCRIPTIONS  (Discs)   •   PAN-AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY / BIRWELL CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PANHELLENIC / PANHELLENION PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   PARAGON RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PARAMOUNT RECORD MANUFACTURING AND RECORDING COMPANY   •   PARAMOUNT RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PARAMOUNT RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PARADE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PARKWAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PAROQUETTE RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   PATHÉ FRÈRES PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PATHÉ PHONOGRAPH & RADIO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PEACOCK RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PEAK RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PEARL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PEARSON’S PRODUCTIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PENGUIN RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PEOPLE’S ARTISTS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PEOPLE’S SONGS  (Discs)  •   PHILO RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   PHONO RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PHONOGRAPH RECORD AND SUPPLY COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PHOTO & SOUND, INC.  (Discs)   •   PHOTOTONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PILOT RADIO COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PIX RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PLANET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PLEASANT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   POLONIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   POLORON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   POLYPHONE COMPANY, THE / TALKING MACHINE COMPANY, THE  (Cylinders)   •   PREMIER RADIO ENTERPRISES, INC. / PREMIER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PREMIER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PREMIUM RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PRESIDENT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PREVIEW RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PRODUCERS RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)  •   PROCESS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PUBLIC RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)

Q.R.S COMPANY  (Discs)   •   QUAKER MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   QUALITY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   QUINN RECORDING COMPANY / GOLD STAR RECORDS RECORDS  (Discs)

RABSON’S MUSIC SHOP  (Discs)   •   RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA — RCA VICTOR DIVISION  (Discs)   •   RADIO RECORDERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RADIO-RUNDFUNK CORPORATION / EUROPA IMPORT COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RADIO TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY OF AMERICA, LTD.  (Discs)   •   RAINBOW RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RAINBOW RECORDS, INC. / RAINBOW RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   RAVEN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RAYMOR–McCOLLISTER MUSIC / RAYMOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   REC-ART RECORDINGS / REC-ART STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RECORD MERCHANDISING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RECORD SYNDICATE TRUST  (Discs)   •   RED BARN RECORDING COMPANY   •   RED BIRD RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   REED & DAWSON / REED, DAWSON & COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   REEVES SOUND STUDIOS / REEVES SOUNDCRAFT CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REGENT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REGIS RECORD COMPANY / REGIS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   RELAX RECORDS  (Discs)  •   REMINGTON RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RELAX RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REX TALKING MACHINE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REYNARD, JAMES KENT  (Discs)   •   RHAPSODY RECORDS [I]  (Discs)   •   RHAPSODY RECORDS [II]  (Discs)   •   RHUMBOOGIE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RHYTHM RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)  •   RHYTHM RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RICH PUBLICATIONS / RICH-ART ENTERPRISES, INC. / RICH-ART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RICH RECORDINGS  (Discs)  •   RICH-R’-TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RICHTONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RKO PATHE STUDIOS Discs)   •   RODEHEAVER RECORD COMPANY / RODEHEAVER RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   ROBIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RODEO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RONDO RECORDS / RONDO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROOST RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROY MILTON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ROY RECORDS  (Discs)  •   ROYAL RECORD COMPANY / SEPIA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROYCROFTERS, THE  (Discs)   •   ’R-TIST RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RUMPUS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

S & D RECORDS  (Discs)  •   S & G RECORDS  (Discs)   •   S. B. W. RECORDING COMPANY / CARL SOBIE PUBLISHING  (Discs)   •   SACRED RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SAN ANTONIO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   SAN ANTONIO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SAPPHIRE RECORD & TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SAPPHIRE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SARAFIAN SOHAG / SOKHAG RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SARCO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SAUVENAIR RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SAVOY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SCANDINAVIAN MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SCANDINAVIAN MUSIC HOUSE  (Discs)   •   SCHIRMER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SCHRIBER AND GUSTAFSON  (Discs)  •   SCOOP RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   SCOOP RECORD COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   SCOOP RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SCOTT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SCRANTON BUTTON COMPANY / SCRANTON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SEARS, ROEBUCK & COMPANY – SILVERTONE RECORD CLUB  (Discs)   •   SECURITY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SEECO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SELECTIVE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SENSATION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SELLERS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SERENADE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SESSION RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SEVA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SEYMOUR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SHARP RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SIEMON HARD RUBBER COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SIGNATURE RECORD COMPANY / SIGNATURE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SILVER SPUR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SILVER STAR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SILVER STAR RECORDING COMPANY   •   SITTIN’ IN WITH RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SLATE ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   SOLO ART RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   SONART RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SONGCRAFT, INC.  (Discs)  •   SONORA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC. / SONORA PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SONORA RADIO AND TELEVISION CORPORATION / SONORA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SONOROUS MUSIC COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SORORITY FRATERNITY RECORDS AND PUBLICATIONS / MAYHAMS AND CO-ED RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SOUTH DAKOTA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   SPANISH MUSIC CENTER / CODA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SPECIALTY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SPIKES BROTHERS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SPIN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPIRE RECORDS COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPIRE RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   SPIRO RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SPOKANE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   SPOTLIGHT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPOTLITE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SQUARE DEAL RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STANCHEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STANDARD PHONO / PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   STAN-LEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   STANLEY RECORDING COMPANY OF AMERICA, INC.  (Discs)   •   STAPLETON INDUSTRIES  (Discs)   •   STARR PIANO COMPANY – GENNETT RECORDS DIVISION  (Discs)   •   STATE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY OF ILLINOIS  (Cylinders)   •   STEINER, JOHN  (Discs)   •   STERLING RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   STINSON RECORDS / STINSON TRADING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STRAND RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   STRONG RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SULLIVAN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SULTAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SUNBEAM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SUNRISE RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)  •   SUNSET RECORD COMPANY  •   SUNSET RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   SUNSHINE PRODUCTIONS AND RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SUPER DISCS  (Discs)   •   SUPREME RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SWAN RECORDING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SWING RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

TALENT RECORDS / STAR TALENT RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TALKING PHOTO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   TALK-O-PHONE COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   TANNER MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TECH-ART RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   TECHNICORD RECORDS  (Discs)   •  TELE-RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   TEMPO RECORD COMPANY OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   TEMPO-TONE RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •    TENNESSEE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   TENNESSEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TEXAS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   TEXSTAR RECORDS  (Discs)    •   THOMAS W. HATCH, PUBLISHER  (Discs)   •   3 MINUTE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TIMELY RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TITAN PRODUCTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TIME ABROAD, LTD.   •   TOKEN RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TOP RECORD COMPANY / TOP RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   TOPS MUSIC ENTERPRISES / TOPS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TOWER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TRILON RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TRI-COLOR RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TRIUMPH RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TROPHY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   TRU TONE PRODUCTIONS, INC. / TRU TONE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)

UNION OF IRISH INDUSTRIES, INC.  (Discs)  •   UNIQUE MUSIC PUBLISHERS AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   U. S. PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNITED ARTIST RECORDS  (Discs)   •   UNITED BROADCASTING COMPANY / MASTER RECORD COMPANY / SWING-MASTER RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNITED HEBREW DISK & CYLINDER COMPANY / UNITED HEBREW RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   UNITED MASTERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   UNITED SOUND STUDIOS / UNITED SOUND SYSTEMS  (Discs)   •   UNITED STATES PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNITED STATES RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNITED STATES RECORD MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNIVERSAL RECORDING LABORATORIES / UNIVERSAL RECORDING CORPORATION / UNIVERSAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL RECORDING STUDIOS / UNIVERSAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL TALKING MACHINE (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY  (Discs)   •   UPTOWN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   URAB RECORDING STUDIO (UNITED RECORDING ARTISTS BUREAU)  (Discs)   •   URBAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

VAN-ES RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VARGO, INC. / VARGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VARIETY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VELVET TONE RECORD COMPANY   •   VERNE RECORDING CORPORATION OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   VICTOR AND VICTOR PREDECESSOR COMPANIES: Johnson Sound Recording Company / Consolidated Talking Machine Company / Victor Talking Machine Company  (Discs)   •   VITACOUSTIC RECORD COMPANY / VITACOUSTIC RECORDS, INC  (Discs)   •   VOGUE RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VON BATTLE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VOX CORPORATION OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   VOX PRODUCTIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VULCAN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)

WALCUTT, MILLER & COMPANY / WALCUTT & LEEDS / THE WALCUTT & LEEDS, LTD.  (Cylinders)   •   WALLIS ORIGINAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WARNER RECORD COMPANY / WARNER RECORDING LABORATORIES / WABINE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WEST COAST PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WEST COAST RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WESTERN RECORDS / WESTERN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WESTERN RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WESTERNAIRE RECORDS / CONSTELLATION RECORD AND DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WHEELING RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WILLIAMS & RANKIN  (Cylinders)   •   WILLIAMS, J. MAYO: Southern Record Corporation / Harlem Records, Inc. / “Ink,” Inc. / Mayo Music / Ebony Records)  (Discs)   •   WHITE CHURCH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WILLOW WALK INDUSTRIES  (Discs)  •   WINSETT RECORDING LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   WINSTON HOLMES MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WISCONSIN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WOR ELECTRICAL RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION SERVICES / WOR RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WORLD BROADCASTING SYSTEM, INC. / WORLD TRANSCRIPTION STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WORLD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   WORLD’S GREATEST MUSIC  (Discs)   •   WRIGHT RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   WRIGHTMAN, NEALE: Neale Wrightman Publishers / Wrightman Music, Inc. / Wrightman Record Company / Wrimus Company  (Discs)   •   WYOMING PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)

YADDO  (Discs)  •   YERKES RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   YOUR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   ZARVAH ART RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

NEW • The “World’s Greatest Operas” Discography (RCA Victor Series) by John Bolig

Our thanks to John Bolig for the first fully detailed discography of the RCA-produced “World’s Greatest Operas” records. Data are from original RCA documentation at the Sony archives in New York. All issues were anonymous, but as you’ll see, some first-rate talent was employed.

John’s complete listing of RCA’s “World’s Greatest Music” records (a substantially revised and expanded version of our very basic  listing that was posted a few weeks ago) has also been posted.

Note that this listing is only for the original RCA-produced series. Other producers took over the “World’s Greatest…” series after the RCA Victor connection was severed in 1940.

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NEW • The “World’s Greatest Music” Discography (RCA Victor Series) – Revised & Expanded by John Bolig

Our thanks to Victor expert John Bolig for revising and greatly expanding the very basic “World’s Greatest Music” listing that we posted a few weeks ago. The data are from RCA’s original documentation at the Sony archives in New York. A complete listing of RCA’s “World’s Greatest Operas” series is also being posted later today.

(By the way, several of John’s landmark Victor Discography titles have sold out recently. The remaining volumes are still available on the Mainspring Press website, but supplies are very limited. The listing below will give you a good idea of the high-quality data and attention to detail you’ll find in all of John’s books.)

Note that this listing is only for the original RCA-produced series of 1938-1940. Other producers took over the series after the RCA Victor connection was severed, and later pressings are not RCA products.
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Victor on the Road: Ralph Peer Goes to El Paso (Summer 1929)

Press coverage of Ralph Peer’s summer 1929 visit to El Paso, Texas, gives a taste of the excitement that was generated when  Victor and other large East Coast record companies came to far-flung locations seeking talent. Three local El Paso artists had already been chosen to record by the end of June, in advance of the Victor team’s arrival, and auditions continued through the second week of July:

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El Paso Herald (June 28, 1929)

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Among those whose recordings were issued were M. S. Dillehay, the Rodeo Trio (D. A. Champaigne, Kenneth Deshazo, and Phil Smith), and the Maxwell family string band from New Mexico, which someone at Victor named the “White Mountain Orchestra.” But the artist who got the most attention from the local press was another member of the Maxwell family, Billie Maxwell Warner, whose records were released under her maiden name:

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El Paso Herald (July 2, 1929)

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The local reporters poked a little fun at a couple of unnamed cowboys who came to audition:
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El Paso Herald (July 11, 1929)

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In the end, four of Billie Maxwell’ songs were released in the  Victor V-40000 country-music series. True to form, Peer had her listed as the “arranger” of these numbers, enabling him to file for copyright on what were actually public-domain folk tunes. Here’s her “Haunted Hunter,” which was also issued in Canada on the Aurora label. Both editions are rare:

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BILLIE MAXWELL, “THE COWGIRL SINGER” (vocal and guitar):
Haunted Hunter

El Paso, TX: July 11, 1929 — Released May 16, 1930
Victor V-40241 (mx. BVE 55234 – 1)
From a tape dubbing, courtesy of the late Gilbert Louey

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El Paso Evening Post (Decemebr 5, 1929)

From the “Gennett Record Gazette” – Joie Lichter, Bob Tamm, and the Questionable “Gene Bailey” (1924)

The Gennett Record Gazette was a nifty promo publication filled with photos, release lists, facts, and “alternative facts.” Here are a couple of excepts from Vol. I, No. 4 (April 1924) — one correcting a likely error in Johnson & Shirley’s American Dance Bands on Records and Film, and the other opening a discographical can of worms.

Joie Lichter’s and Bob Tamm’s Milwaukee orchestras visited Gennett’s Richmond, Indiana, studio on March 4, 1924 — Lichter recording five sides, with Tamm squeezing in a single title midway through the session, according to the Gennett ledgers. (“Tamm” or “Tamms”? It appears both ways in press reports and ads of the period, but “Tamm” is favored by a good margin.)

For god-only-knows what reason (since its compilers give none), ADBRF lists the Tamm side as a pseudonymous Lichter recording, even though the ledger, and the detailed information reported below, make that seem unlikely. For what it’s worth, Brian Rust credited the Tamm side to Tamm in his earlier  American Dance Band Discography, from which ADBRF was largely taken. If anyone can offer any credible reason for the change in ADBRF (credible excluding things like “so-and-so is sure he hears such-and-such” or “Joe Blow remembers that somebody said…”), please let us know, and of course be sure to cite the source. If it checks out, we’ll be happy to post it.

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Our next excerpt involves the ubiquitous Bailey’s Lucky Seven. For years it’s been taken for granted that this was a Sam Lanin group, and aural evidence does strongly suggest that was the case on many sides. Many others, however, are more generic-sounding. Unfortunately, the Gennett ledgers offer no clues in either case. (Note that the Bailey’s personnel listings in the various Rust and Johnson & Shirley discographies are all conjectural, even if the authors don’t make that clear. None of it is from file data or other primary-source documentation.)

But here we have one “Gene Bailey, of Bailey’s Lucky Seven” running a question-and-answer column in the Gennett Record Gazette. Not surprisingly, “Bailey” gave no answer whatsoever to the fan’s question concerning the Lucky Seven’s personnel, or where the band was performing, other than a vague reference later in the column to one “Saxophone Joe.”

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So, was there a real Gene Bailey involved with these recordings, and if so, in what capacity? Or was this just yet another case of the Gennett folks having fun with pseudonyms? We favor the latter, since we’ve found no trace of a Gene Bailey having been  active on the New York-area musical scene, either as a musician or a manager, at the time. (These were all New York recordings.  The cartoon above, by the way, is based on a well-known 1923 photo taken in the New York studio, which was configured differently than the Indiana facility).

There’s an old anecdote about Gennett borrowing the names of employees or other locals for its artist pseudonyms. And a Gene Bailey does turns up in the social notices of several eastern Indiana newspapers at the time, although with no mention of any musical connection. But just to muck things up a bit, Gennett once issued a record credited to “Jene Bailey’s Orchestra,” claiming (in the ledger as well as in their ads) that Mr. Bailey personally conducted the side:

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Of course, much of Gennett’s promotional material should be taken with the proverbial grain of salt. This was, after all, a  company whose “Colored Records” catalog included a photo of an unknown black band that was captioned “Ladd’s Black Aces” — a confirmed pseudonym on Gennett for the all-white Original Memphis Five.

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While we’re on subject, here’s a terrific book that all Gennett fans should own, by Charlie Dahan and Linda Gennett Irmscher (Arcadia Publishing). It’s available on Amazon.com, and a real  bargain at just $21.99 — crammed with rare photos and little-known facts, and covering a much broader scope than the earlier Kennedy tome. Highly recommended!
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(That’s Art Landry’s Call of the North Orchestra on the cover. At the top, you can see the heavy drapes that contributed to the Indiana studio’s notoriously muddy acoustics.)

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Len Spencer Arrested (1897)

Russell Hunting wasn’t the only recording-industry pioneer to be arrested in the 1890s. In March 1897, Len Spencer and two of the Emerson brothers were taken into custody in Newark, New Jersey, charged with stealing cylinders from the United States Phonograph Company.

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Len Spencer’s Phonoscope biography, 1898

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The trouble began in early 1897, after Spencer and the Emersons (Victor H., George E., and Clyde D.) resigned from United States Phonograph to work for the American Graphophone Company (Columbia).

According to the charges, Spencer, George Emerson, and Clyde Emerson took a substantial number of records from U.S. Phonograph, which they allegedly sold to a “rival concern.” The company was not identified in the press reports, but quite likely it was Columbia, which had a history of copying other companies’ cylinders and marketing them as their own (see, for example, American Graphophone Co. v. United States Phonograph Co., et al., U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey, In Equity No. 4005, an 1898 case in which Calvin Child confirmed the practice).

Victor Emerson was not charged. Details of the arrest were reported by the New York Sun on March 9, 1897:

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But unlike Hunting, who went to jail for three months for making and peddling “obscene” records, Spencer and the two Emersons  escaped unscathed. On March 25, 1897, the prosecutor declared that the state had no case, and defendants were discharged.

A few weeks later, Spencer formally announced his employment by Columbia:

 

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Spencer didn’t remain exclusive to Columbia for long, and by the early 1900s he had reclaimed his former status as one of the most prolific studio free-lancers. Victor Emerson went on to serve long and well as Columbia’s chief recording engineer before resigning in 1914 to launch his own label.

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Harry Gennett, Jr., and the Gennett Sound Effects Records (1928 – 1956)

Harry Gennett, Jr., and the Gennett Sound Effects Records
(1928 – 1956)
By Allan Sutton

 

In November 1956, Harry Gennett Jr. (the son of Gennett Records president Harry Sr.) recalled his involvement with the Gennett Sound Effects records for a reporter from the Richmond, Indiana Palladium-Item. Much of the following information came from his recollections, supplemented by data from the Gennett ledger sheets.

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Gennett Record’s sound-effects program was launched in 1928 as a client service for the Hannaphone Company, [1] a Philadelphia-based theater-management company. On November 21, it was announced that Hannaphone had contracted with Gennett to produce sound-effects records for use with motion pictures.

Harry Gennett apparently already had such a venture in mind at the time of the Hannaphone announcement. Sound-effects recording began to appear regularly in the Gennett ledgers beginning on October 16, 1928, [2] several of which were played for a gathering of the Richmond Foreman’s Club at which Gennett announced the deal. [3]

Demand for sound-effects recordings quickly mushroomed as producers of sound films began dubbing pre-recorded sound effects into their soundtracks. Gennett’s offerings included “Hog Calling Contest,” “Poultry—Roosters and Geese Predominant,” “American Can Factory,” “Electric Washing Machine—Not Much Suds,” “Single Man Walking Through Sand and Gravel,” “News Room—Confusion of Sounds,” “Winds Howling–Continuous,”  “Auto Crashes with Screams,” “Auto Race with Crashes,” and the ominous “Railroad Comes Through the Middle of the House.” [4]

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Gennett’s original mobile recording laboratory. The truck was outfitted with assistance from William C. Kaeuper, woodworking supervisor of the Richmond, Indiana, plant.

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The sound-effects operation was quickly handed off to Harry Gennett’s son, Harry Jr., along with Richmond plant manager Robert Conner. The corner of Eighth and Main in Richmond was a favored spot for early recording sessions, providing numerous recordings of street and railroad sounds, factory whistles, and the occasional car wreck.

But Gennett and Conner also traveled widely in their pursuit of sound. In 1929, they and William C. Kaeuper (the plant’s woodworking supervisor) equipped a large panel truck with what Harry Jr. recalled as “a ton” of recording equipment [5]  and began taking to the road — at first, just scouting around the Richmond area, but later (after recording equipment became sufficiently compact to transport in a car) traveling across the country. They recorded the mission bells in Santa Barbara, California, [6] Hopi Indian dances in New Mexico (with the recording equipment hidden in nearby vegetation), [7] and braying mules in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

 

In later years, as recording equipment became more portable, Gennett and Conner employed a car as their mobile unit and traveled widely. Here, it’s parked in front of the Santa Barbara Mission in California.

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Among the films employing Gennett sound effects was Frank Buck’s “Bring ‘Em Back Alive,” which used animal noises that Harry Jr. recorded at the Cincinnati Zoo. Gennett recalled that he was allowed to stay overnight on the zoo grounds but was ordered to remain in his car to avoid being shot by the zoo’s guards. He was also warned that his cables could spook the giraffes, who might mistake them for snakes.

Some recordings, like the boxing-match, railroad, and airplane-noise sides, were straightforward live captures, unstaged and untinkered-with. But in many other cases, Harry Jr.’s creativity and technical expertise came into play. The “Alley Cat” record employed a human imitator, but “Braying Mule” used the real thing, with a bit of coaxing. Gennett recalled having a boy lead one mule away from the herd, causing “a loud voice of disapproval” from the others. Studio personnel were recruited to re-create a medieval battle and other chaotic scenes, and Gennett sometimes tested new noise-makers in the main factory, much to the displeasure of some employees.

Thunder effects were obtained by recording shotgun blasts, then dubbing the results at a slower speed, which Gennett claimed gave better results than the real thing. To create the gear-shifting effect in “Automobile Continuously Running” (reportedly a top seller), Gennett simply altered the recording speed while the car remained stationery. Gennett also became a master of overdubbing. One of his most popular efforts combined a long tire screech and collision noises (the latter recorded live on a Richmond street) with the existing “Automobile Continuously Running” recording to create a sensational car-crash record. [8]

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The original 1928 sound-effects label (upper left); a sound-effects recording on the Gennett Electrical Transcription label, marketed for radio use (upper right); an Electrical Transcription test pressing (lower left); and the later-1930s version of the sound-effects label (lower right)

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Some attempts at staging backfired, but probably none so badly as when Gennett and Conner accidentally set the recording-studio building on fire in an attempt to capture crackling flames on disc. [9] There were human perils to be dealt with as well, including a suspicious local patrolman who fired a shot their way while they were parked on a country road one dark night.

When Gennett could not obtain a desired effect, he dubbed recordings from other sources, perhaps not always legally. He paid K. I. Sakai of Tokyo for his recording of “Japanese Traffic Noise,” but there is no indication in the ledger that he paid for or sought permission from Victor to use two of their recordings, which he dubbed and cobbled together as “Traffic Noises of England, with Big Ben.” [10]

The sound-effects records helped to keep the Gennett operation afloat after Harry Gennett, Sr., discontinued commercial record production in 1934. However, demand for the records declined after the 1930s, as special-effects recording techniques became more sophisticated. Still, the operation remained in business (later under the “Speedy-Q” name) into the mid-1950s. In his 1956 interview, Gennett reported that he still received the  occasional order. [11]

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Notes

[1] “Richmond Plant Joins in Making Sound Pictures.” Richmond [IN] Item (November 22, 1928).

[2] Gennett ledger sheet, October 16, 1928.

[3] “Richmond Plant Joins in Making Sound Pictures,” op. cit.

[4] Gennett ledger sheets, 1929–1937.

[5] Corya, Bob. “Gennett Recalls Trip to Zoo to Make Animal Noise Records.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item  (November 12, 1956), p. 3.

[6] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Gags Irritating to Piano Tuners at Starr Plant.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item  (November 13, 1956), p. 7.

[7] Corya, Bob. “Gennett Recalls Trip to Zoo,” op. cit.

[8] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Recorded Locally Over 20 Years Ago Still Popular.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item (November 11, 1956), p. 10.

[9] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Gags,” op. cit.

[10] Gennett ledger sheets: Mxs.  N 19944 – N 19947 (dubbed from Victor) and N 19954 (dubbed from purchased Japanese master).

[11] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Recorded Locally,” op. cit.

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© 2017 by Allan R. Sutton. All rights are reserved.

Camden, Philadelphia, or New York? Fact-Checking the Victor Studio Locations (1901-1920)

Camden, Philadelphia, or New York: Fact-Checking the Victor Acoustic-Era Studio Locations
By Allan Sutton

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.The facts:

  • There is no documentary evidence that the Victor Talking Machine Company operated a recording studio in Camden, New Jersey, from September 1901 through early December 1907.
  • During that period, most Victor recording sessions were held in Philadelphia. A much smaller number, by Red Seal artists only, were held in New York at that time.
  • Very early Victor recording locations are only occasionally noted in the surviving company files.
  • Brian Rust and other early discographers, when confronted with this omission, behaved as usual — They guessed (incorrectly assuming Camden for September 1901 – November 1907 sessions that were actually held in Philadelphia), and then passed off their guesses as fact.

Now that the key points are out of the way, let’s look at the supporting evidence, from the memoirs of a man who was there at the time — Harry O. Sooy, Victor’s chief recording engineer. The following studio chronology is based upon Sooy’s memoirs (Sarnoff Library, Princeton, New Jersey), with corroborating circumstantial evidence from the surviving Victor files:

The Camden > Philadelphia > Camden Chronology
(1900 – 1907)

 

Late 1890s – February 1900: Collings Carriage Factory Building (Front & Market Streets), Camden, NJ

According to Sooy, this was the site of Eldridge R. Johnson’s first experimental recording studio. No documentation of the recordings made there is known to have survived

 

February 1, 1900 – c. August 1, 1901: Johnson Factory Building, Camden, NJ

In late 1899, Eldridge Johnson began construction of a four-story factory building in Camden. Sooy recalled having moved Johnson’s recording equipment from the carriage factory to the new building on or around February 1, 1900. By that time, according to Sooy, Johnson was recording masters for Berliner.

Recording of Johnson’s own masters (i.e., those issued on his various Victor predecessor labels) began on May 1, 1900. The last of Johnson’s Berliner masters for which a date is confirmed was recorded two days later.

Johnson’s studio was moved from Camden to Philadelphia in September 1901, according to Sooy (and the Victor Talking Machine Company was incorporated on October 3). The move was made to provide more space for the machine shop. Recording in Camden appears to have ended on August 1, 1901, and it would not resume there until December 9, 1907.

 

August 2 – September 4, 1901: No recording activity

 

September 5, 1901 – November 22, 1907: 424 S. 10th Street, Philadelphia

Sooy recalled that the Victor studio was moved to Philadelphia from its original Camden location during September 1901. The Victor files, which show that no recordings were made during August 2 – September 4, 1901, lend credence to  Sooy’s recollection.

Assuming this thirty-four day hiatus marks the Camden-to-Philadelphia transition, the last Camden session would have been Rogers & Pryor’s “Answer” (“pre-matrix” Victor 837, an August 1 remake of a May 31 session); and the first Philadelphia session would have been Frank Seiden’s “Rosinkes und Mandlein” (“pre-matrix” Victor 928, recorded September 5, 1901). The large numerical gap occurs because the Rogers & Pryor catalog number was allocated at the time of the original session.

Sooy recalled, “The moving of the Laboratory from Camden [to] Philadelphia was done…by Mr. MacEwan, a bob-tail horse and Mr. Nafey. Money in these days not being overly plentiful, MacEwan acted as teamster on the job, and Nafey, I guess, was boss; however, the moving was done in a very creditable manner… Upon entering our new quarters at 424 So. 10th St., or 10th and Lombard Sts., which was known as the colored belt of Philadelphia, we were furnished with considerable excitement in the neighborhood outside of making records.”

Philadelphia would host Victor’s main studio for six years. The studio was located on the second floor of a building formerly occupied by the Berliner Gramophone Company. A matrix-plating plant was housed in the basement, and a blank-processing department was opened on the third floor in January 1904. Stampers  were shipped to the Duranoid Company (and, for a time, to the Burt Company as well) for pressing. Victor also maintained a Philadelphia branch office in the Girard Building during this period.

As far as can be ascertained from documentary and circumstantial evidence, no Victor recording studio existed in Camden while the Philadelphia studio was in operation. Thus, the many modern citations of Camden recording sessions from September 5, 1901 through November 1907 are in error.

 

November 23 – December 8, 1907: No recording activity

 

From December 9, 1907: Front & Cooper Streets, Camden, NJ

During November 1907, the Philadelphia studio was closed, and a new studio was opened on the fourth floor of what would later come to be known as Building #15 in Camden. The transitional period is apparent in the Victor files, which show no recordings were made during November 23–December 8, 1907.

Assuming this sixteen-day hiatus marks the Philadelphia-to-Camden transition, the last Philadelphia recording would have been Alan Turner’s “The White Squall” (mx. B 4961, recorded November 22, 1907; delayed release on Victor 16006); and the first Camden recording would have been the Victor Orchestra’s “Army and Navy Medley Reel” (mx. B 4962, rejected takes 1 and 2, recorded December 9, 1907).

While many Red Seal sessions continued to be held in New York, the Camden studio was also used for Red Seal sessions beginning December 11, 1907. “From this time on,” Harry Sooy stated, “recording dates of a Red Seal nature were alternated between the Camden and New York laboratories to suit the convenience of the artists.”

On March 13, 1911, the studio was moved to the newly added seventh floor of Building #15. Additional studios were installed in the building over the years, the last major addition being a large room for orchestral sessions in late 1924. After RCA’s acquisition of Victor in 1929, the Camden studios were slowly phased out in favor of New York.

After attempts to record a large symphony orchestra in the regular studio proved unsatisfactory, the eighth-floor auditorium of the Executive Building in Camden was converted to a temporary studio in the autumn of 1917. The hundred-member Boston Symphony Orchestra under Karl Muck made its first recordings in the auditorium studio on October 2, followed by the Philadelphia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski on October 22.

In early 1918, Victor purchased the Trinity Church at 114 North Fifth Street, Camden, which it converted to a studio for large vocal and instrumental ensembles, as well as sessions requiring a pipe-organ regardless of ensemble size (the original church organ was eventually replaced with a more robust model). Recording commenced there on February 27, 1918. During 1928, the main floor of the church was used on occasion as a supplemental Vitaphone sound-stage, and a basement studio was used for soundtrack dubbing.

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Victor’s New York Studios (1903 – Early 1920s)

Initially, Victor maintained a New York studio solely for the convenience of its Red Seal artists. Less-stellar  artists were required to travel to Philadelphia (or later, to Camden). Sooy stated that all Red Seal sessions prior to July 22, 1907, were held in New York, and file evidence seems to support his assertion.

 

March 26, 1903 – October 8, 1904: Carnegie Hall Annex (Room 826), New York

Victor leased studio space in the annex, not in the theater itself as has been stated in some works. Enrico Caruso made his first Victor recordings there, and as far as can be ascertained, all Carnegie Hall sessions involved Red Seal artists. Sooy recalled, “It was a great relief to get out of Carnegie Hall, and away from the Vocal Studios where vocal teachers were constantly trying voices, good, bad and otherwise.” The Carnegie Hall Annex studio was not a full-time operation.

 

October 8, 1904 – June 1, 1909: 234 Fifth Avenue, New York

As with the Carnegie Hall studio, this location was reserved primarily for Red Seal sessions and was not a full-time operation.

 

After June 1, 1909:

By the later ’teens, Victor’s New York studios were being used for popular as well as classical sessions, and cities usually are listed in the files (see DAHR’s free online Victor data for locations of each session). Victor operated its main New York studios at the following addresses during the remainder of the acoustic era:
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June 2, 1909 – April 1912: 37–39 E. 29th Street, New York (first full-time New York studio)

April 1912 – January 18, 1917: 12–14 W. 37th Street, New York

January 19, 1917 — January 5, 1921: 46 W. 38th Street, New York

From January 6, 1921: National Association Building (28 W. 44th Street, 22nd floor), New York

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By the later 1920s, Victor was operating at least three New York studios simultaneously, including leased space in Liederkranz Hall. These studios, as well as Victor’s Midwestern and West Coast studios and its field-recording locations, will be the subject of a future article.

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© 2017 by Allan R. Sutton. All rights are reserved.

 

The John Fletcher Story, Part 2: The Olympic-Remington Debacle (1921 – 1922)

The John Fletcher Story, Part 2: The Olympic-Remington Debacle (1921–1922)
By Allan Sutton

 

 

The following is a condensed excerpt from the author’s Harry Pace, John Fletcher, and the Black Swan Saga (in preparation for 2018 publication)

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Pathé was not yet producing lateral-cut discs when it took over  John Fletcher’s Operaphone Company as a subsidiary. [1] By early 1920, however, it was preparing to do so, and the universal-cut Operaphone discs (being readily playable on lateral-cut machines) might have been seen as a potential competitive threat. It probably was no coincidence that Operaphone’s sudden disappearance in early 1920 occurred at precisely the same time as Pathé’s launch of its new lateral-cut Actuelle discs.

Little more was heard of John Fletcher until March 1921, when The Talking Machine World reported the launch of the Olympic Disc Record Corporation. [2] Incorporated with $260,000 capital in Maryland (although it never operated there [3]), Olympic announced that it would “manufacture the highest possible quality phonograph records, and plans to engage the best artists available.”

Much was made of the fact that the Remington Phonograph Company held a controlling interest in Olympic. Olympic’s  executive roster was identical with that of Remington Phonograph, except for one outsider — John Fletcher, who was listed as secretary of the new company. [4] Remington’s failure a year later would  take Olympic down with it, but in early 1921 the acquisition was hailed by industry insiders as a promising move by a rising new phonograph manufacturer.

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    The Remington Phonograph Corporation, picturing president Philo E. Remington, was registered on July 20, 1920. The company filed a trademark application for Reminola records on the same date.

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The Remington Phonograph Corporation had been incorporated in January 1920. [5] The company was headed by former Remington Typewriter Company executive Philo E. Remington (president), along with James S. Holmes (vice-president and general manager), and M. B. Thomas (secretary and, later, treasurer). [6] Eliphalet Remington, son of the founder of the Remington Arms Company, served on the board of directors. [7] Although Remington Phonograph’s promotional materials strongly suggested that the company was affiliated with Remington Arms, it was not, as later testimony would confirm. [8]

The phonograph plant was to have been housed in the Remington Typewriter factory at Ilion, New York, [9] a plan that was quickly abandoned. Instead, the company purchased an existing factory (formerly used by an unnamed manufacturer of bank and office fixtures) in Brooklyn’s Bush Terminal Building. [10] Shipments of the first phonograph model, coupled with a national advertising campaign, began in late July or early August 1920. [11] Three additional models began shipping that autumn.

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Remington’s main selling point was its reproducer, which was said to do away with the “cramped or imprisoned tone” of other models.

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Remington Phonograph clearly was anticipating record production as early as the summer of 1920. In July of that year, the company filed a U.S. trademark application for use of the Reminola brand on phonographs and records. [12] Although his application claimed use since May 5, 1920, no evidence has been found that that Reminola records were ever produced commercially. Early reports stated that Remington’s records would be manufactured at Ilion, but as 1921 dawned, they had yet to appear.

Then, in April 1921, came the first listing of Olympic records, as May releases. TMW reported that the company had already begun recording and pressing records in its Brooklyn facility. [13] A month later, it was reported that Olympic had acquired Fletcher’s idled Operaphone facility (which included a studio and pressing plant) on Meadow Street in Long Island City. Edward Kuhn (a former Edison supervisor) was hired as an advisory mechanical engineer as recording and manufacturing were transferred to the Long Island facility. By then, Fletcher had been elected to Remington Phonograph’s board of directors. [14]

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Olympic advertised aggressively, albeit to little apparent effect. The double-page spread ran in a 1921 edition of The Talking Machine World.

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Olympic got off to an unsteady start, despite an aggressive advertising campaign. Once again in charge of a recording program, Fletcher repeated past mistakes. Although Olympic was marketed as a premium-priced label, its main offering was bland pop and light classical fare, much of it performed by the same New York-area dance bands and studio freelancers who could be heard on dozens of other labels, many of them better-produced than Olympic.

The only relatively bright spot was an operatic series (with program notes printed on the labels) featuring such lesser lights as Regina Viccarino, Henrietta Wakefield, and Percy Hemus. Broadway star Greek Evans was pressed into service as an operatic baritone on several releases. However, only ten issues appeared, most of them single-sided.

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Olympic used many of the same freelance studio singers and New York-area dance orchestras (like Harry Yerkes’ Jazzarimba Orchestra, above) that could be heard on dozens of other labels. Some of the operatic recordings (right) later turned up, in disguise, on the cut-rate National Music Lovers label.

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Olympic’s recording and technical quality were mediocre, and with few stars or anything out of the ordinary in the way of repertoire in its catalog, the label could not hope to compete with Columbia, Victor, and other comparably priced brands. The company boasted a large number of retailers, but many (like the “trunk, bag, and umbrella” store shown below) carried phonographs and records only as side-lines. Sales lagged as advertising fell off, and the final Olympic Disc Record Corporation releases appeared in December 1921. At the same time, the parent Remington Phonograph Company was failing.

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Remington in decline: In late 1921, the company began steeply discounting its phonographs.

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On December 1, 1921, Remington and Olympic were thrown into receivership on the complaint of vice-president Holmes, who contended that it was impossible to proceed with business unless additional capital could be raised. In addition, Holmes disclosed that a number of legal actions against the companies were likely. Remington Phonograph claimed liabilities of $22,500 and assets of $100,000. The situation was more dire for Olympic, with liabilities of $33,000 and assets of $60,000. [15] Later testimony revealed that Remington had lost money from the start, despite rosy statements to investors.

On December 9, the Olympic Disc Record Corporation filed a petition in bankruptcy. [16] With Remington itself on the verge of collapse, management’s answer was to press its already-disgruntled investors for still more money. A meeting of Remington stockholders on January 30, 1922, turned violent, as the Philadelphia Inquirer reported:

Interrupted by cried of “liar,” “thief,” “throw him out,” and “wait until we get you outside,” James P. Holmes, vice-president of the Remington Phonograph Company [sic], tried in vain yesterday to soothe the ruffled feelings of five-hundred disgruntled stockholders… Most of them appeared to be persons of small means… The manager of the hotel came on the run when a bedlam of hisses and howls greeted Holmes’ further efforts to preside. The manager settled this argument by threatening to call the police and have the whole crowd ejected if the noise continued. [17]

A proposal that stockholders sink still more money into a reorganization was shouted down. Eventually, Edwin Starr Ward, an attorney representing the stockholders, was allowed to present his report. Philo Remington, he alleged, was merely a company figurehead, drawing a minimum $5,000 annual royalty for the use of his name. Of the 22,500 shares he had originally owned, he was now said to hold only 1,100. Ward concluded, “The business was carried on in a wasteful, ignorant, and extravagant manner and with utter disregard for the interests of stockholders.” Finally, the New York Times reported, “the gathering broke up in disorder.” [18]

The Olympic and Remington operations were quickly dismantled. Louis Jersawit, the receiver for both companies, gave notice in the New York Times for March 3, 1922, that all of Olympic’s assets and property were to be auctioned on March 25. Offered for sale was,

a fully equipped plant for the manufacture of phonograph records, phonograph records completed and in the course of completion, all materials and property used in the manufacture of phonograph records, all patents, copyrights, and trademarks, all office and factory furniture and fixtures, together with the complete equipment of the factory of the said defendant, Olympic Disc Record Corporation, contained in the premises at 156 Meadow Street, Long Island City… [19]

The purchaser would be none other than John Fletcher, in partnership with Black Swan’s Harry Pace—the American recording industry’s first racially mixed executive team. Fletcher retained possession of his Olympic masters, some of which he proceeded to reissue under colorful aliases on Black Swan, in the process scuttling Pace’s pledge to issue only recordings by black artists (although in fairness, it should be noted that Pace himself had already broken that pledge on several occasions).

Some Olympic masters would also find their way to other companies, including the Bridgeport Die & Machine Company, New York Recording Laboratories, and Scranton Button Company, which parceled them out to their client labels for several years. Some of Olympic’s celebrity operatic issues even ended up, in disguise, on Scranton’s cut-rate National Music Lovers label. [20]

Fletcher had escaped the Remington Phonograph Corporation’s collapse unscathed, at least from a legal standpoint, but other Remington executives would not. An investigation of Remington Phonograph revealed that of the $1 million allegedly collected on stock sales, only $440,000 showed on Remington’s books. In addition, shareholder complaints continued to mount over misleading promotional materials and artificially inflated stock prices. The result was an investors’ lawsuit charging that the Remington Phonograph Corporation “was grossly mismanaged by its officers, who are now under indictment for fraudulent use of the mails in connection with the selling of the stock of the corporation.” [21]

The indictment referred to in the shareholder’s suit originated in  the Philadelphia District Attorney’s office, which charged Philo Remington and five other Remington Phonograph executives or associates with stock fraud. On June 1, 1922, all six were ordered held on $5,000 bond each, pending arraignment. [22] The investigation would drag on into the spring of 1924, before finally going to trial on April 4. Of the six who were originally charged, only Morris Pomerantz (a salesman whose connection to the company is unclear) escaped indictment.

At the trial, Harry Sieber (who had succeeded Thomas as treasurer) testified that Remington Phonograph had “never earned a dollar,” and that the stock price “was shoved up whenever that seemed expedient.” His testimony was followed by a parade of stockholders who declared they had been misled into believing that Remington Phonograph was affiliated with Remington Arms and Remington Typewriter. Among the evidence presented was a booklet devoted to the history of both companies, which Remington Phonograph had mailed to potential investors. [23] Two other key pieces of evidence were discovered to have mysteriously disappeared, but copies were allowed into evidence. [24]

By the end of the thirteen-day trial, seven of the original nine counts had been dismissed as faulty, and most of the evidence relating to misleading use of the Remington name had been excluded. Philo Remington and James Holmes were acquitted. The jury was unable to reach a verdict on the other three. [25]

In the meantime, John Fletcher, having not been caught up in the Remington investigation, had been busy. In the space of two years, he had bought his way into Black Swan, contributed significantly to its collapse, and now was about to pack his bags for Chicago, where one last failure awaited him.

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Part 1 — Music for Everybody (1900–1921)

Part 3 (Coming Soon) — A Not-So-Black Swan (1922–1923)

Part 4 (Coming Soon) — Beating a Dead Horse in Chicago (1924–1925)

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 Notes

[1] “Pathé Frères Phonograph Co.” (re: Operaphone as a Pathé subsidiary). Moody’s Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securities. New York: Moody Manual Co. (1922), p. 940. Pathé’s control of Operaphone beginning in the later ‘teens was never disclosed publicly.

[2] “New Concern to Make Records.” Talking Machine World (Mar  15, 1921), p. 3

[3] Two of Olympic’s board members resided in Baltimore, perhaps explaining the decision to incorporate in Maryland.

[4] “New Concern to Make Records,” op. cit.

[5] Untitled notice. Talking Machine World (Jan 15, 1920), p. 121.

[6] “To Enter Talking Machine Field.” Talking Machine World (Mar 15, 1920), p. 226.

[7] “Announcing the Remington Phonograph Corporation” (ad). Talking Machine World (Jun 15, 1920), p. 62.

[8] “Remington Phonograph Head on Trial for Fraud.” Olean [NY] Times Herald (Apr 9, 1924), p. 5.

[9] “Holmes with Remington Corp.” Talking Machine World (May 15, 1920), p. 62.

[10] “Reviews Remington’s Progress.” Talking Machine World (Sep 15, 1920), p. 124.

[11] “Remingtons Now Being Shipped.” Talking Machine World (Aug 15, 1920), p. 51. Shipments of additional models began in September or early October.

[12] Remington Phonograph Corporation. “Reminola,” U.S. trademark application #135,214 (filed Jul 20, 1920).

[13] Some pressings had been produced by March 14, 1921, when they were demonstrated at Remington Phonograph’s first annual shareholders’ meeting.

[14] “Remington Co. Doubles Stock.” Talking Machine World (Apr 15, 1921), p. 33.

[15] “Receiver Is Appointed for Remington Phonograph.” New York Tribune (December 2, 1921), p. 19.

[16] “Business Troubles — Petitions in Bankruptcy.” New York Tribune (Dec 10, 1921), p. 17.

[17] “Heads of Defunct Firm Threatened.” Philadelphia Inquirer (Jan 31, 1922), p. 2. The New York Times, in the article cited below, gave the number of stockholders attending as four-hundred.

[18] “Stockholders in Wrangle.” New York Times (Jan 31, 1922), p. 3

[19] “Receivers’ Sales.” New York Times (Mar 4, 1922), p. 19.

[20] Sutton, Allan. Pseudonyms on American Records, 1892–1942 (Third Revised and Expanded Edition). Denver: Mainspring Press (2013).

[21] Frankland et al. v. Remington Phonograph Corporation et al. (119 A. 127).

[22] “6 Remington Officers in $5,000 Bail.” Rochester [NY] Democrat and Chronicle (Jun 2, 1922), p. 1

[23] “Promoters Listen to Luring Letters.” Philadelphia Inquirer (Apr 5, 1924), p. 2.

[24] “Evidence Missing. Letters Used in Alleged Fraud Case Are Stolen.” Cincinnati Enquirer (Apr 5, 1924), p. 9.

[25] “Two Are Acquitted in Remington Case.” Philadelphia Inquirer (Apr 23, 1924), p. 3.

Gennett Odd-and-Ends • How to Pronounce “Gennett” (1920) / H. Ross Franklin Orchestra Personnel (1922)

We’ve heard “Gennett” pronounced every which-way over the years, and apparently so had the Gennett family, who finally placed an ad in 1920 to set the record straight. Here you have it, from the folks who knew best:

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Muncie [IN] Evening Post, January 16, 1920

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For anyone owning the H. Ross Franklin Orchestra’s Gennett personal record — all two of you, perhaps? — here are the rather obscure personnel (not listed in the American Dance Band Discography and derivative works) who were present at that session on March 6, 1922. This list is transcribed verbatim from The Fort Wayne [IN] Journal-Gazette for April 2, 1922, and probably contains some misspellings:

H. Ross Franklin [piano] directing: Vern C. McDermitt (trumpet); Benjamin West (trombone); Glendon C. Davis (clarinet); Harold D. Smith (alto saxophone); Lawrence G. Pape (oboe); Steward C. Loranze (violin); Edward Melching (banjo); Paul E. Dickerson (brass bass); John Kehne (percussion).

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The Journal-Gazette reported that this session entailed “eight hours of strenuous effort.” A third title, “You Know,” was also recorded, but so far we’ve not found any reliable evidence that it was issued. Let us know if you have a copy, and be sure to include a photo or scan for confirmation. Franklin’s orchestras cut two additional sides for Gennett in October 1928, but both were rejected.

For more on Franklin and several of his musicians, see Duncan Schiedt’s superb The Jazz State of Indiana (Indiana Historical Society, 1999).

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Mainspring Press Books: Going, Going (and Soon to Be Gone)

Just a reminder that Mainspring Press has discontinued production of CDs and books as it begins the transition to online data delivery, in affiliation with the Discography of American Historical Recordings (DAHR) at the University of California–Santa Barbara.

We recommend ordering any titles of interest as soon as possible. Several popular books (including Recording the ‘Thirties and The Pathé-Perfect Discography, Vol. 1) have already sold out, and others are in short supply. All CDs have also sold out.

We won’t be reprinting any titles once the current inventory is sold — and buying these books on the used-and-collectible market (if you can even find copies) is often a very pricey proposition. Don’t miss out!

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UPDATE: Mainspring’s long-awaited American Zonophone 7″ and 9″ discographical database has now been incorporated into DAHR (there will be no print edition of this material). It’s the most highly detailed data ever published on these rare recordings, including little-known information on remakes, altered masters, relabelings, reissues, catalog listing dates, artist pseudonyms, and other fine details you just won’t find anywhere else — plus an illustrated history. And it’s free.

 

Mainspring Press News • May – June 2017

Mainspring Press to Donate Reference Collection to the University of California–Santa Barbara

Mainspring Press has begun making arrangements to donate its extensive reference collection to the University of California at Santa Barbara, one of the major centers for discographical research in the U.S.

Highlights of the collection include the Bill Bryant and Record Research-group papers. The latter  include approximately 70,000 index cards (compiled and maintained by Len Kunstadt, Walter C. Allen, George Blacker, and other highly respected researchers from 1952 through the late 1980s) containing complete discographical details of pre-1935 American records for which no original files exist. There is also an extensive collection of “SAC” (synchronized aural comparison) ledgers, in which the RR members painstakingly sorted out different takes, false master numbers, and control numbers on troublesome labels like Bell, Paramount, and the Plaza group, as well as a wealth of other rare and unpublished material.

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Len Kunstadt (left) with one of his notorious ten-foot-high stacks of 78s. Len and the Record Research group eventually filled three warehouses with their holdings, many of which were acquired purely for research purposes. Bill Bryant (right) inherited the RR research papers and unpublished manuscripts, along with the exclusive publication rights, from George Blacker in the 1990s.

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Bill Bryant’s papers includes numerous large binders of equally reliable discographical data (his own, as well as substantial contributions from the likes of Ed Kirkeby, Dick Spottswood, Ray Wile, Quentin Riggs, and Jim Walsh, among others); complete photocopied and/or microfilmed sets of the Gennett master ledgers, Edison studio cash books, and Decca 78-rpm ledgers; and other essential primary-source material.

Transfer of selected materials to UCSB probably will begin in late 2017.


Second Edition of Dick Spottswood’s Ethnic Music on American Records, 1893 – 1942 Coming This Summer as a Free Download

The revised and expanded edition of Dick Spottswood’s legendary ethnic-record discography will be posted as a free download later this summer, exclusively on the Mainspring Press blog.

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Dick Spottswood (right) with Skip James (Bryant collection)

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The first edition of this pioneering work (published in 1990, and now long out-of-print) topped out at more than 3,700 pages. In the three decades since its release, Dick has made substantial additions and revisions that will appear here for the first time. The second edition is being made available completely free of charge for personal use, courtesy of the author.


American Zonophone 7″ and 9″ Discography In Final Preparation for Posting on DAHR

The second volume of Bill Bryant’s American Zonophone Discography is undergoing final file preparation and will appear on UC-Santa Barbara’s online Discography of American Historical Recordings within the next few weeks. This volume includes all 7″ and 9″ general-catalog releases (1899 – 1905), as well as Zonophone’s first, short-lived 10″ series of 1902. An illustrated history and label guide are included.

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Unidentified Zonophone storefront, c. 1899 (Bryant collection)

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This is Mainspring’s first direct-to-online venture (with many more planned); a printed edition will not be produced.

 

The Playlist • Henry “Red” Allen (1929 – 1930)

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Before Victor snagged Louis Armstrong, their chief trumpet star was Henry Allen, Jr. (the “Red” business didn’t appear on labels consistently until later). His orchestra on Victor was actually that of Luis Russell, which was under contract to Okeh at the time. (This wasn’t Luis Russell’s only instance of rebranding. Many of King Oliver’s big-band sides were also by the Russell band, sometimes with only minimal participation by Oliver himself.)

Original shellac pressings of recordings like these are lovely to behold, we’ll grant you, and some can bring a king’s ransom if in truly outstanding shape (which most aren’t — and for all the newbies out there overpaying on eBay for wiped-out crap copies, keep in mind: it’s all about condition-condition-condition, even for the scarce stuff).

But for pure musical enjoyment, nothing beats a custom virgin-vinyl disc carefully hand-pressed from a well-preserved original stamper, like these (and since only a few copies were pressed, and were not sold to the public, they’re actually much rarer than the original shellacs). The vinyls used here were pressed in the 1950s or 1960s, most likely in conjunction with RCA’s “X-“ or “Vintage” LP reissue program. A lot of these custom pressings found their way to collectors in England; those used here, and many used elsewhere on the blog, eventually found their way back via the late Malcolm Shaw.

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HENRY ALLEN, JR. & HIS ORCHESTRA [Luis Russell’s Orchestra]: It Should Be You

New York (46th Street Studio): July 16, 1929
mx. BVE 55133 – 3 (commercially issued on Victor V-38073)

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HENRY ALLEN, JR. & HIS ORCHESTRA [Luis Russell’s Orchestra]: Swing Out

New York (studio unlisted): July 17, 1929
mx. BVE 53930 – 2 (commercially issued on Victor V-38080)

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HENRY ALLEN, JR. & HIS ORCHESTRA [Luis Russell’s Orchestra; vocal by Allen]: Roamin’

New York (24th Street Studio): July 15, 1930
mx. BVE 62345 – 2 (commercially issued on Victor 23006)

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HENRY ALLEN, JR. & HIS ORCHESTRA [Luis Russell’s Orchestra; vocal by Allen]: Patrol Wagon Blues

New York (24th Street Studio): July 15, 1930
mx. BVE 62343 – 2 (commercially issued on Victor 23006)

 

All from c. 1950s–1960s blank-labeled custom vinyl pressings from the original stampers. Discographical data from the original RCA files (Sony archives, NYC), courtesy of John Bolig.