Some Early Record-Pressing Plants

AUBURN BUTTON WORKS (Auburn, NY) — Founded in 1876  by John Hermon Woodruff, as Woodruff’s Button Factory, this  company was renamed Auburn Button Works in the late 1880s. It moved into the Washington Street buildings shown here in 1900. Auburn pressed the 7″ and 9″ brown-shellac Zonophone discs at an auxiliary plant in New York City.

The relationship was severed after Zonophone switched to Duranoid pressings in 1904, and the pressing equipment was moved to Auburn, where the International Record Company (producers of Excelsior, Lyric, et al.) was set up as a recording subsidiary. The company was forced to suspend production of its own records after losing a 1907 patent-infringement suit to Columbia. In the early 1920s the pressing plant was leased to Brunswick, then was sold to the Scranton Record Company in November 1924.

Auburn continued to manufacture other goods after spinning off the pressing business. Its final incarnation was as Auburn Plastics, Inc., which was incorporated on July 1, 1957, and dissolved (after many years of inactivity) on March 24, 1993.

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COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY (Bridgeport, CT) — Columbia’s sprawling Bridgeport complex housed most production operations other than recording. Acquired by the American Record Corporation in 1934, it continued to produce high-quality laminated pressings for ARC’s more expensive labels (Brunswick, Columbia, Liberty Music Shops, et al.), while pressing of ARC’s budget labels remained in Scranton. Conditions in the Bridgeport pressing plant were so bad by the mid-1930s that record producer John Hammond published a scathing exposé and attempted to unionize the workforce.

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VICTOR TALKING MACHINE COMPANY (Camden, NJ) — The largest record-production facility in the United States at the time, the Victor complex was a city unto itself, with its own printing plant, fire department, infirmary, auditorium, police force, docks, and rail line. The view above is from 1916; just twenty years earlier, future Victor founder Eldridge Johnson was building motors for Emile Berliner in a rented shack. The sole surviving structure now houses luxury apartments.

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LEEDS & CATLIN COMPANY (Middletown, CT) — In September 1905, Leeds & Catlin opened this pressing plant in the former Worcester Cycle Company factory, replacing its New York City plant. The move coincided with Leeds’ phase-out of its foil-labeled discs. Three months later, the company announced it had installed fifty additional presses to accommodate the ever-increasing demand for its new paper-labeled Imperial records. By the end of 1905, the Middletown plant was said to have an annual capacity of 150 million discs. This view appeared in a 1906 ad for Radium cylinders, Leeds’ short-lived attempt to re-enter the cylinder market.

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AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY / DOMESTIC / OKEH  (Springfield, MA) — The American Record Company (Hawthorne, Sheble & Prescott) pressed their blue-shellac discs in this building during 1904–1906. Horace Sheble later pressed his Domestic discs here, using the same sort of blue shellac.

Following the demise of Domestic, Otto Heineman took over the plant in early 1918 for his newly launched Okeh label. Unable to keep up with orders for the first several years, Heineman contracted his overflow pressing to at least two outside plants.

In this view, Okeh is sharing space with the International Insulating Corporation, one of Heineman’s many other business ventures. This pressing plant was closed after Heineman opened a more modern facility in Newark, NJ, in 1921.

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BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER COMPANY (Jersey City, NJ) — This was Brunswick’s second pressing plant; initially, it used a facility in Long Island City, NY. Brunswick also used the Auburn Button Works facility as an auxiliary pressing plant until November 1924, when the Scranton Button Company acquired Auburn’s pressing plant. Brunswick’s main pressing plant, in Muskegon, MI, opened in 1922. Vocalion’s masters were transferred there in March 1925. The Muskegon pressing plant was closed after the Brunswick and Vocalion labels were licensed to American Record Corporation, and in 1934 Decca Records purchased the largely obsolete equipment, much to its regret.

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STANDARD MUSIC ROLL COMPANY / THE ARTO COMPANY (Orange, NJ) — Employees assemble for a company photo in 1918 at the Standard Music Roll plant, before production of Arto records began (above). The photo was presented to president George Howlett Davis as a Christmas gift.

The Arto pressing plant was housed in a new structure, shown here in a 1919 architect’s sketch (below). Only the two-story structure on the right was actually built. In addition to the pressing plant, it housed Standard’s piano-roll flange factory. Although Arto claimed to operate its own studio, the vast majority of its masters were commissioned from outside sources, including Jones Recording Laboratories, Independent Recording Laboratories, New York Recording Laboratories, and Harry Marker’s H&M Laboratories (see Bell and Arto Records: A History and Discography, 1920–1928, available from Mainspring Press).

SCRANTON BUTTON COMPANY (Scranton, PA) — The largest independent American pressing plant for several decades, Scranton was closely affiliated with the Plaza Music Company / Regal Record Company group beginning in the early 1920s. Some accounts refer to this company in error as the Scranton Button Works.

Scranton sometimes invested in its clients (including National Music Lovers, in which it held a 49% stake) as a means of ensuring their continued business. At the time this view was published in 1924, the company has just acquired the Emerson recording division, which had been split from the radio division (the latter being the ancestor of the present-day Emerson corporation).

The plant was included in the 1929 merger that created the American Record Corporation. It continued to press budget labels for ARC until that company was sold to CBS, which had no use for the facility. Reorganized as the Scranton Record Company in 1939, it barely survived an entanglement with Eli Oberstein’s failed United States Record Corporation before re-emerging as a major independent plant. Capitol Records began purchasing  Scranton stock in 1944, and on March 26, 1946, it bought the company outright.

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NEW YORK RECORDING LABORATORIES (Grafton, Wisconsin) — Owned by the Wisconsin Chair Company (Port Washington, WI), this converted knitting mill on the Milwaukee River housed the pressing plant for Paramount and its many associated labels. It was a relatively primitive operation, and its pressings tend to reflect that. The pressing plant occupied the large structure on the left. Paramount’s now-legendary (and equally primitive) recording studio opened in late 1929, in the smaller building on the right. The studio building was demolished in 1938, the pressing-plant building in the mid-1940s.

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Progress Report: Encyclopedia of American Record Companies and Producers, 1888 – 1950

PROGRESS REPORT:

THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN RECORD COMPANIES
AND PRODUCERS, 1888 – 1950
By Allan Sutton

Projected Publication Date: Summer 2018

 

EARCP is still on track for a mid-2018 release. For those of you not already familiar with the project, it is a highly detailed, fully documented history all American companies and producers of commercial recordings (cylinder and disc) from the beginning of commercial record production in the late 1880s to the start of LP era in 1950.

We had originally planned to go directly to online-only release; however, we’ve received numerous requests for a printed version. Therefore, we are now planning to make the initial release in book form, currently estimated at 800 pages.

The following 1,129 entries, which are associated with thousands of individual labels, are in final fact-checking and copy-editing. Additional entries, primarily very small independent operations, are still works-in-progress:

 

A — A-1 Recording Co. • A-1 Records of America • Abbey Record Corp. / Abbey Records, Inc. • ABC-Eagle Recordings • Ace Record Co. • Acme Radio & Record Corp. • Acorn Records • Admiral Records, Inc. / Adam Records, Inc. • Advance Records • Adventure Record Co. / Adventure Records, Inc. • Advertiser Publishing Co., Ltd. • Advertisers Recording Service, Inc. • Aeolian Co., The • Aetna Music Corp. • Aguila Record Manufacturing Co. • Alabama Phonograph Co. • Aladdin Records • Alben Record Co. • Alco Recording Co. • Alco Research & Engineering Co. • Alert Records, Inc. • Alegene Sound & Radio Co. / Algene Recording Studios • Allegro Records • Allender Record Distributors • Allentown Record Co. • Allied (Phonograph And) Record Manufacturing Co. • Alpha Records, Inc. • Alvin Records • Am Records / American Music • Ambassador Records • American Elite, Inc. • American Glossite Co. • American Gramophone Co. • American Graphophone Co. • American Institute of Music, Arts & Drama • American Jazz, Inc. • American Music Publishing Co. • American Odeon Corp. • American Phonograph Co. • American Phonograph Record Co. • American Record Co. (I) • American Record Co. (II) • American Record Co. of California • American Record Corp.  • American Record Manufacturing Co. (I) • American Record Manufacturing Co. (II) • American Recording & Transcription Service • American Recording Artists / Ara Records • American Recording Co. • American Recording Laboratories • American Talking Machine Co. [I] • American Talking Machine Co. [II] • American Vitaphone Co. • Americana Records • Amigo Music Publishing Co. • Ammor Record Corp. / Ammor Record Co. • Amuke Record Co. • Ansa Records • Angelophone Records / Angelico Co. • Antillian Music Features, Inc. • Apex Recording Laboratory • Apex Recording Studios • Apollo Record Co. • Apollo Music Enterprises / Apollo Records, Inc. / Rainbow Record Shop • Appliances Co., The • Arcadia Records & Transcription Co., Inc. • Arco Records • Arden Recording Co. • Ardene Record Co. • Arista Record Corp. • Aristocrat Record Corp. • Arrow Phonograph Corp. • Art Floral Record Shop • Art Records Manufacturing Co., Ltd. • Art Service Music • Artist Records, Inc. • Artistic Records • Artists Music Corp. • Arto Co., The • Arvid Records, Inc. • Asa Records • Asch Recording Studios / Asch Records • Associated Cinema Studios • Associated Distributors, Inc. • Associated Music Publishers Recording Studios / Associated Transcriptions • Associated Studios Broadcasting & Recording • Atlas Record Co. • Atlantic Records • Atomic Record Co. / Atomic, Inc. • Atwood–Herscher Publications • Auburn Button Works • Audeon Corp. • Audience Records, Inc. • Audio Co. of America / Aca Recording Studios, Inc. • Autograph Records • Auto-Photo Record Co. • Avalon Record Co. • Ayo Records •

B — B. J. Exploitation Co. • Bacchanal Recordings, Inc. • Bachman Studio • Baclora Records • Baldwin Recording Studios, Inc. • Balkan Record Co. • Ballen Record Co. • Bama Record Co. • Bandwagon Records, Inc. / Bennett Records • Bang Records • Banner Records, Inc. • Barthel Records / Barthel, Inc. • Batt Masian Co. • Beacon Record Co. • Bebe Daniels, Inc. • Bee Bee Bee Records • Belgian Conservatory of Music, Inc. • Bell Record Co. / Bell Record Corp. • Bell Record Co., Ltd. • Bell Recording Corp. • Bell Records, Inc. • Bel-Tone Recording Corp. (I) • Beltone Recording Corp. • Bennett Records • Berger Enterprises • Berliner, Emile: American Gramophone Co. / United States Gramophone Co. (1893–1895) / Berliner Gramophone Co. • Berliner [H. S.] Recording Laboratories • Besa Records • Bethlhem Music Co. / Bethlehem Recording Laboratory • Bettini Phonograph Laboratory • Bibletone • Big Nickel Records • Big Town Recordings • Birdland Records • Birwell Corp. • Black & White Records / Black & White Recording Co. • Blazon Records • Blue Chip Record Co. • Blue Danube Records • Blu-Disc Record Co. • Blue Bonnet Music Co. • Blue Label Records • Blue Note Records • Blue Record Co. • Blue Ribbon Music Co. / Blue Ribbon Records • Blue Star Records • Blu-White Record Co., Ltd. • Bob Miller Enterprises • Bobby Gregory Records • Boney Records • Bongo Record Co. • Bop Records • Bornand Music Box Record Co. • Bost Records Co. • Boston Talking Machine Co. • Bradley, Richard & Associates • Bridgeport Die & Machine Co. • Brinckerhoff & Co., Inc. / Brinckerhoff Studios, Inc.–Time Abroad • Broadcast Recorders, Inc. • Broadcast Recording Studios / Broadcast Records • Broadway Reord Company • Bronze Recording Studio / Bronze Record & Recording Co. • Broome, George • Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co. • Brunswick Radio Corp. / Brunswick Record Corp. • Bullet Recording & Transcription Co. / Bulleit Enterprises, Inc. • Burke & Rous • Burnette, Smiley • Burt (Manufacturing) Co. •

C — C & S Phonograph Record Co. • C. H. Bourne Recording Co. • Cadet Record Co. • Cadillac Record Co. (I) • Cadillac Record Co. (II) • California Record (Manufacturing) Co. • California Recording Co. • Cameo Record Corp. • Campus Christian Recording Corp. • Canzonet Record Co. • Capital Sound Studios • Capitol Records, Inc. • Capitol Roll & Record Co. • Capri Records • Cardinal Records, Inc. • CA-Song Record Co. • Castle Record Co.  (Los Angeles) • Castle Records, Inc. (I) • Castle Records, Inc. (II) • Cavalcade Music Co. • Cavalier Recording Co. • Cava-Tone Recordings • Cecille Music Co. • Celebrity Records Inc. • Celesta Records Co. • Celps Record (& Supply) Co. • Celtic Record Co., Inc. • Central Nebraska Phonograph Co. • Century Record Co. • Champion Record Co. • Champion Recording Corp. • Chance Record Co. • Changer Publications, Inc. • Charles E. Washburn Co. • Charm Records, Inc. • Charles Eckard Co. • Charter Records • Cherokee Record Co. • Chess Records • Chicago Central Phonograph Co. • Chicago Gramophone Society • Chicago Record Co. • Chicago Recording Studios, Inc. • Chicago Talking Machine Co. • Chief Record Co. • Cincinnati Record Manufacturing Co. • Circle Records / Circle Sound, Inc. • Clark Phonograph Record Co. • Clarion Record Co. • Clarion Record Manufacturing Co., Inc. • Classic Record Co. • Claude Record Co. • Clef Publications • Clef Records, Inc. • Cleveland Phonograph Co. • Click Record Co. • Clipper Records • Clover Records Co., Ltd. • Club Records • Co-Art Records Co. • Coast Record (Manufacturing) Co. • Cobra Records • Coda Record Co. • Coleman Recording Co. • Collectors Items, Inc. • Collegiate Recording Co. • Colonial Records, Inc. • Colony Record Co. • Colorado Phonograph Co. / Colorado & Utah Phonograph Co. • Columbia Broadcasting System: Columbia Recording Corp. / Columbia Records, Inc. • Columbia Phonograph & Related Companies: American Graphophone Co. / Columbia Graphophone Co. / Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Co. / Columbia Phonograph Co., Inc. / Columbia Phonograph Co., General • Columbine Records • Comar Records • Comet, Inc. • Commodore Music Shop / Commodore Record Co., Inc. • Compo Co., Ltd. (New York operations) • Command Records • Commercial Record Co. • Compass Record Co. • Concert Hall Society, Inc. • Concert Music Shop, Inc. • Concert Phonograph Record Co., Inc. • Consolidated Film Industries • Consolidated Phonograph Companies, Ltd. • Consolidated Record(ing) Corp. / Consolidated Recording Laboratories • Consolidated Records, Inc. • Consolidated Talking Machine Co. • Constellation Records • Continental Phonograph & Record Co. • Continental Record Co., Inc. • Cook Laboratories • Cormac Records • Coral Records, Inc. • Coronet Records, Inc. • Cosmo Records, Inc. • Country Music Co. • Courtney Records • Cova Recording Corp. • Covered Wagon Records • Cowboy Record Co. • Cozy Records • Crescent Music Corp. • Crescent Record Co. • Crest Records • Criterion Laboratories / Criterion Records, Inc. • Crown Record Co. • Crown Record Corp. • Crown Recording Corp. • Crown Records • Crystal Recording Studio • Crystal Tone Record Co. • Crystalette Records of California / Crystalette Records, Inc. • Cudahy Recording Corp. •

D — D. E. Boswell & Co. • Damon Recording Studios, Inc. / Damon Transcription Laboratory & Sound Service • Dana Records / Dana Music Co. • Danceland Record Co. • Dance-Tone Record Co. / Dance-Tone Records, Inc. • Dansrite Record Co. • Davis, Joe: Beacon Record Co. / Celebrity Records / Joe Davis Record Co. / Davis Record Corp. / Jay-Dee Records • Day Distributing Co. • Dc Records • De Luxe Record Co., Inc. • Decca Records, Inc. • Delmac Record Co. • Delray Recording Co. / Paradise Recording Co. • Delvar Recording Co. • Derby Records Corp. • Dial Records • Diamond Record Co., Inc. • Diamond Record Corp. • Diapason Records • Diccha Industries • Disc Co. /Corp. of America • Discos Allegro, Inc. • Discos Peerless • Discovery Records, Inc. / Discovery Records of New York, Inc. • Dixie Record Co. • Dolphin, John: Dolphin’s of Hollywood / Recorded In Hollywood • Dome Records (Inc.) • Domestic Talking Machine Corp. • Domino Phonograph Corp. • Domino Record Co. • Domino Records • Donett Hit Record Co. • Dot Records • Down Beat Recording Co. • Down Home Corp. • Down Home Record Co. • Down River Records • Down Town Recordings • Dublin’s • Dude Records • Dudley Records • Duke Record Co. • Duplex Phonograph Co. • Duranoid Manufacturing Co. • Durium Products Corp. / Durium Products, Inc.

E — E. A. Eily Record Co. • E. O’byrne De Witt & Son(S)  / James O’byrne Dewitt, Inc. • E. T. Herzog Recording Co. • E. T. Paull Music Co.  • Eagle Record Co. • Early American Dances • Eastern Pennsylvania Phonograph Co. • Ebony Records • Echo Recording Co. • Echo Records  [I] • Edison, Thomas A.: Edison Phonograph Co. / Works; National Phonograph Co.; North American Phonograph Co.; Thomas A. Edison, Inc. • Edison Phonograph Co. of Ohio • Edn Records • Eily Record Co. • Ekko Recording Corp. • Electric Recording Laboratories • Electrical Research Products, Inc. • Electro Broadcasters • Electro-Vox Recording Studios • Elite Record Manufacturers • Emanon Record Co. • Embassy Record Co. • Emerald Record Co. • Record Products: Emerald • Emerson Phonograph Co., Inc. • Emerson Recording Laboratories, Inc. • Empey Records, Inc. • Empire Broadcasting Corp. • Empire Record Co. / Corp. • Empire Recording Studios • Encore Record Co. • Englewood Records • Enterprise Records (Inc.) • Eslava Recording Co. • Esquire Record Co. • Esquire Records • Etna Recording Co., Inc. • Everstate Records • Everybodys Record, Inc. • Excellent Record Corp. • Excelsior Phonograph Co. / Excelsior & Musical Phonograph Record Co. • Excelsior Records • Exclusive Records • Exner Record Co. / F. B. Exner

F — F & P Records • Faith Records • Famous Record Co. • Famous Record Co., Inc., of New York • Famous Records, Inc. • Famous Singers Records, Inc. • Fanfare Records • Fargo Records • Favorite Recording Co. • FBC Distributing Co. • Federal Record Corp. • Federal Records • Fentone Enterprises • Fidelity Records [I] • Fidelity Records [II] • Fine Arts Recording Co. • Fine Recording Co. / Fine Recording Studios • Fletcher Record Co., Inc. • Flint Records, Inc. • Flexo Pacific Coast Record Corp. / Flexo Theater Record Co. • Flora Records • Florida Phonograph Co. • Florida Records • FM Records / FM Recording Co. • Folkraft Records • Folkways Records & Service Corp. • Ford, Mr. & Mrs. Henry • Fortune Records • Fox Record Co. • 4-Star Record Co. • 49th State Hawaii Record Co. • Frank’s Folk Tune Record Co. • Fran-Tone Records • Freedom Recording Co. • French-American Phonograph Distributors • Franwil Record Co. • Fraternity Record Co. • Friends of Recorded Music, The • Frisco Records • Frontier Records

G — Gaelic (Phonograph) Record Co., Inc. • Gala Record Co. / Gala Record Corp. • Gamut Records • Gee Bee Records • Geddins, Robert L. (Bob): Big Town Recordings / Down Town Recording, Inc. / Cava-Tone Recording • Gem Records, Inc. • Gene Austin Record Co. • General Phonograph Corp. • General Records, Inc. • General Sound Corp. • Gennett Recording Laboratories / Gennett Records • General Sound Corp. • Georgia Phonograph Co. • G. I. Records, Inc. • Gilt-Edge Record Co. • Glenn Wallichs Recording Studios • Globe Distributors • Globe Phonograph Record Co. • Globe Record Co. [I] • Globe Record Co. [II] • Glo Tone Records • Gold Medal Records, Inc. • Gold-Rain Recording Co. • Gold Seal Record Co. • Gold Tone Record Co. • Goldband Record Co. / Goldband Recording Studio • Golden Gate Record Co., Inc. • Golden Record Co., Inc. • Good Time Jazz • Goody Record Corp. • Gospel Record Co. • Gospel Trumpet Co. • Gotham Record Co. • Gotham Record Co. / Corp. • Gramophone Shop, The • Grand Central Music Co. / Rego Re cords • Grand Record Co. • Greater New York Phonograph Co. • Greek Record Co. • Green Recording Studios • Gregol Enterprises • Gregory Record Co. • Grey Gull Records, Inc. • Grimes Music Publishers • Guild Records, Inc. • Gold Star Records • Gulf Record Co., Inc.

H — H. K. S. Publishing Co. • H & M Laboratories • Hamp-Tone Records, Inc. • Handy Record Co. • Happiness Records • Harding, Roger • Hardman Record Co. • Hargail Records • Harlem Records, Inc. • Harmonia Record Corp. • Harmony Record Co. • Harmony Recording Laboratories • Harmony Records • Harms, Kaiser & Hagen • Harris Record Co. / Harris Recording Laboratories • Harry Lim Recordings • Harry Smith Recordings • Hart-Van Record Recording Co. • Haven Records, Inc. • Hawthorne & Sheble [Manufacturing] Co. • Hawthorne, Sheble & Prescott • Headline Record Corp. of New York • Heart Records, Inc. • High Time Records • Hi-Lite Recording Co. • Hit Record Co. • Holiday Record Co. • Holiday Records • Holiday Records (of Hollywood) • Hollywood Enterprises, Inc. • Hollywood Flexo Record Co. • Hollywood House of Music • Hollywood International Records • Hollywood (Phonograph) Record Co. • Hollywood Recording Co. • Hollywood Records • Hollywood Star Records • Holmes Royal Record Co. • Hot Record Society / H. R. S. Recordings • Hot Rod Record Co. • Houston Records • Howard Records, Inc. • Hub Records • Hucksters Record Co. • Hunting, Russell • Hy-Tone Recording Co. / Hy-Tone Manufacturing & Distributing Co.

I — Ideal Records • Idessa Malone Distributors / Idessa Malone Enterprises • Imperial Record Co. (I) • Imperial Record Co. (Inc.)  (II) • Imperial Records, Inc. • Imperial Talking Machine Co. • Impresario Records • Indestructible Phonographic Record Co. • Independent Record Co. • Independent Recording Laboratories • Indigo Recordings, Inc. • “Ink,” Inc. • International Phonograph & Record Co. • International Record Collectors Club • International Record Co. [I] • International Record Co. (II) • International Recording Studio • International Records • International Records Agency • Intro Records • Iowa Phonograph Co. • Island Music & Recording Co. • Israel Record Co. • Ivory Recording Co.

J — J. & J. Clano • J. B. Allison Recording Laboratories • J. O. B. Records • J. W. Myers Standard Phonograph Record Co. • Jade Record Co. • Jamboree Records, Inc. • James D. Vaughan, Publisher • Jay-Gee Record Co., Inc. • Jazz Disc • Jazz Information Records • Jazz Ltd. • Jazz Man Record Shop • Jazzology Records • Jel Records, Inc. • Jewel Record Co. (I) • Jewel Record Co. (II) • Jim Beck Records / Jim Beck Recording Studios • Joco Records • Joe Davis Record Co. • John Currie Enterprises • John F. Dahl Recording Co. • Johnson Sound Recording Co. • Jones (Recording) Laboratories / Jones Research Sound Products   • Joy Records • Jubilee Records Co., Inc. • Jugoslavia Jewelry & Phonograph Co. • Juke Box Record Co. • Jump Records

K — Kansas City Talking Machine Co. • Kansas Phonograph Co. • Kappa Records, Inc. • Karl Zomar Library, The • Keen-O-Phone Co., Inc. • Keltic Record Corp. • Kem Records, Inc. • Kentucky Phonograph Co. • Keynote Records • Keystone Recording Co. • Keystone Records • Khoury’s Recordings • King Jazz, Inc. • King Record Co. • Kismet Record Co. • Ku Klux Klan–Affiliated Producers • K-W Record Corp.

L — La Bonita Records • La Marr Record Co. • Laborator Ed. Jedlicka • Laboratory Association, The • Lamb’s Recording Studios • Lambert Co., The • Lamplighter Records • Lark Record Co. • Lasso Record Co. • Latin American Records • Laurent Records, Ltd. • Lee Sales Co., Inc. • Leda Records Co. • Leeds & Catlin Co. • Leeds & Co. • Lei Record Co. • Leo Kupana’i Studio • Leslie Records, Inc. • Liberty Music Shop(S) • Liberty Phonograph Co. • Liberty Record Co. [I] • Liberty Record Co. [II] • Liberty Recording Co. • Library of Congress—Division of Music • Life Record Co. • Life Records • Lina Records • Lincoln, Benjamin • Lincoln Record Corp. • Lincoln Records, Inc. • Linden Recordings / Linden Records • Lindwood Recording Co. • Little Wonder Record Co. • Lissen Records, Inc. • Lloyd’s Novelty & Curio Shop • Lloyd’s Records • London Gramophone Corp. • Lone Star Music Publishers • Lone Star Publishing & Recording Co. • Louisiana Phonograph Co., Ltd. • Lucky Music Corp. • Lucky 7 Recording Co. • Lyraphone Co. of America • Lyric Phonograph Co.

M — M & S Distributing Co. • M & S Electric Co. • Macy’s Recording Co. • MacGregor & Sollie, Inc. / MacGregor & Ingram Recording Laboratories / MacGregor Transcriptions Studios • Maestro Music Co. / Maestro Record Co. • Macksoud, A. J. • Magnolia Records Co., Inc. • Main Stem Music Shop • Main Street Records • Majestic Phonograph Co., Inc. / Majestic Record Corp. • Majestic Records, Inc. • Major Records • Maloof Phonograph Co. • Manhattan Music Corp. • Manhattan Recording Laboratories • Manor Record Co. • Maratone Records • Margo Record Co. • Mar-Kee Records • Mars Records • Marsh Laboratories, Inc. • Marshall, Charles • Marshall Record Co. • Marvel Record Co. • Marvel Records • Mary Howard Recordings • Master Record Co. [I] • Master Record Co. [II] • Master Records, Inc. • Masterpiece Co. • Mastertone Record Co., Inc. • Maunay Records • Mayfair Record & Recording Corp. • Mayhams & Co-Ed Records • Mecca Records • Melford Record Co. • Mello-Strain Records, Ltd. • Mellow Music Shop / Mellow Record Co. • Mel-Mar Records • Melmore, Inc. • Melodisc Recording Co. • Melody Lane Recording Co. • Melody Moderne, Inc. • Melody Records, Inc. • Melody Trail Records • Melrose Records • Meltzer, Sam • Memo Records Corp. • Memphis Recording Service / Phillips Recording Service • Mercer Records • Mercury Record Corp. • Merit Records • Mero Records • Metro Records • Metropolitan Phonograph Co. • Metropolitan Record Co. • Metrotone Record Co. • M-G-M Records, Inc. / Loew’s, Inc. • Michigan Phonograph Co. • Mida Record Co. • Midget Music, Inc. / Midget Music Productions • Midwest Recording Co. • Miller & Hagen • Miller Publications, Inc. • Minnesota Phonograph Co. • Miracle Record Co. • Miltone Record Co. • Mirror Recordings • Missouri Phonograph Co. • Modern Music Records / Modern Records • Modern Record Co. • Monarch Records, Inc. • Monroe, John • Montana Phonograph Co. • Mood Records • Morrison Music Co. • Motif Record Manufacturing Co. • Movietone Music Corp. • Murray Singer Records • Music Art Records • Music Enterprises, Inc. • Music For Society Record Co. • Music, Inc. • Music-Mart Records • Music of The Orient Co. • Music On Parade Records • Music You Enjoy, Inc. • Musicart Records • Musical Phonograph Record Co. • Musicraft Records / Musicraft (Recording) Corp. • Mutual Records • Muzak (Transcriptions), Inc. • Muzicon

N — National Film & Recording Co.  • National Gramophone Corp. • National Phonograph Co. • National Record Co. • National Records Co. • National Vocarium, The • Nation’s Forum • Natural Hit Record Co., A • Natural Records • Neale Music / Neale Wrightman Publishers • Nebraska Phonograph Co. • New England Phonograph Co. • New Jazz Record Co. / Prestige Records • New Jersey Phonograph Co. • New Music Quarterly Recordings • New Orleans Bandwagon • New Orleans Record Shop • New York Phonograph Co. • New York Phonograph Recording Co. • New York Recording Laboratories • Newark Recording Laboratories • Norcross Phonograph Co. • Nordskog Phonograph Recording Co. • North American Phonograph Co. • North American Recording Co. • Novelty Record Co. • Numelody Records • Nutmeg Record Corp.

O — O’Dowd, Thomas • Ohio Phonograph Co. • Ohio Talking Machine Co. • Okeh Phonograph Corp. • Oklahoma Tornado Recording Co. • Old Dominion Phonograph Co. • Oliver Record Co. • Olympic Disc Record Corp. • Olympic Recording Co. • Opal Records • Opera Record Co. / Opera Recording Co. • Opera Records • Operaphone Co., Inc. / Operaphone Manufacturing Corp. • Opus Records • Ora Nelle Record Co. • Orchid Record Co. • Oriole Records Corp. • Orpheum Record Co. • Orpheus Record & Transcription Co. • Otto Heineman Phonograph Supply Co., Inc.

P — Pace Phonograph Corp. • Pacemaker Record & Transcription Co. • Pacific Record Co. • Pacific Coast Record Corp., Ltd. • Pacific Phonograph Agency / Pacific Phonograph Co. • Page Recording Co. • Palda Record Co. • / Pan-Am Transcriptions  / Pan-American Publications • Pan-American Record Co. / Birwell Corp. • Panhellenion Phonograph Record Co., Inc. / Panhellenic Record Co. • Parade Record Co. • Paradise Recording Co. • Paradise Records • Paradox Industries, Inc. • Paragon Records, Inc. • Paramount Record Manufacturing (And Recording) Co. • Paramount Recording Corp. • Paramount Records • Parkway Records • Parody Records • Paroquette Record Manufacturing Co., Inc. • Party Record Co. • Pathé Frères Phonograph Co. / Pathé Phonograph & Radio Corp. • Pavilon Recording Co. • Peacock Recording Co. • Peak Records, Inc. • Pearl Records • Pearson’s Productions, Inc. • Penguin Recording Corp. • People’s Artists, Inc. • People’s Songs • Perfect Record Co. • Peter Bacigalupi (& Sons) • Peter Doraine, Inc. • Pharos Record Co. • Philo Recordings • Phoenix Publications & Recordings • Phono Record Manufacturing Co. • Phono-Cut Record Co. • Phonograph Record & Supply Co. • Phonograph Recording Co. • Photo & Sound, Inc. • Phototone Records • Pilot Radio Co. / Corp. • Pioneer Recording Co. • Pix Records • Planet Record Co. • Plaza Music Co. • Pleasant Records • Plymouth Recording Co. • Polo Record Corp. • Polonia Phonograph Co. • Poloron Records • Polotone Music Corp. • Polyphone Co., The • Premier Radio Enterprises, Inc. / Premier Records • Premier Record Co. • Premium Record Corp. • President Records • Prestige Records • Preview Records • Producers Recording Co. • Process Record Co. • Public Records, Inc.

Q — Q.R.S Co. • Quaker Music Co. • Quality Records, Inc. • Quinn Recording Co.

R — Rabson’s Music Shop • Radio Artist Records • Radio Corp. of America: Victor Talking Machine Division / Radio-Victor Co. of America  / RCA Victor Co., Inc. / RCA Manufacturing Co. • Radio Recorders, Inc. • Radio-Rundfunk Corp. of America • Radio Transcription Co. of America, Ltd. • Rainbow Record Co. • Rainbow Records, Inc. / Rainbow Recording Corp. • Rancho Records • Raven Recording Co. • Raymor–Mccollister Music / Raymor Record Co. • Rec-Art Recordings / Rec-Art Studios • Record Broadcasting Corp. • Record Corp. of America • Record Corp. of New England • Record Manufacturing Co. • Record Merchandising Co. • Record Syndicate Trust • Recorded In Hollywood • Red Barn Recording Co. • Red Bird Recordings • Reed & Dawson / Reed, Dawson & Co. • Reeves Sound Studios / Reeves Soundcraft Corp. • Regal Record Co., Inc. • Regal Record Corp. • Regal Records • Regent Records • Regis Record Co. / Regis Records, Inc. • Rego Records • Reina Record Co. • Relax Records • Remington Records, Inc. • Relax Records • Renaissance Records • Rex Talking Machine Corp. • Reynard, James Kent • Rhapsody Records  [I] • Rhapsody Records  [II] • Rhumboogie Recording Co. • Rhythm Recordings, Inc. • Rhythm Records Co. • Rich-Art Enterprises / Records • Rich Publications / Rich-Art Enterprises, Inc. / Rich-Art Records • Rich Recordings • Rich-R’-Tone Record Co. • Richtone Record Co. • Rko Pathe Studios • Rodeheaver Record Co. / Rodeheaver Recording Laboratories • Robin Records • Rockett Record Co. • Rodeo Records • Rondo Records (Inc.) • Roost Records, Inc. • Roy Milton Record Co. • Roy Records • Royal Record Co. • Roycrofters, The • ’R-Tist Record Co. • Rumpus Record Co.

S — S & D Records • S & G Records • S & S Recording Studios • S. B. W. Recording Co. / Sobie Publishing • S. D. Records • Sacred Records, Inc. • San Antonio Phonograph Co. • San Antonio Records, Inc. • Sapphire Record & Talking Machine Co. • Sapphire Record Co. • Sarafian Sohag / Sokhag Record Co. • Sarco Record Co. • Sauvenair Records Co. • Savoy Record Co. • Scandinavian Music Co. • Scandinavian Music House • Schirmer Records • Schooler Record Co. • Schriber & Gustafson • Scoop Record Co. [I] • Scoop Record Co. [II] • Scoop Records • Scott Record Co. • Scranton Button Co. / Scranton Record Co. • Sears, Roebuck & Co.–Silvertone Record Club • Security Records • Seeco Records, Inc. • Select Records • Selective Record Co. • Sensation Record Co. • Sellers Co., The  / Sellers, Inc. • Sepia Records, Inc. • Serenade Recording Corp. • Serenade Records • Session Records, Inc. • Seva Record Corp. • Seymour Records • Sharp Record Co. • Siemon Hard Rubber Co. • Signature Record Co. / Signature Recording Corp. • Silver Spur Records • Silver Star Record Co. • Silver Star Recording Co. • Sittin’ In With Records, Inc. • Skyline Music, Inc.  • Slate Enterprises, Inc. • Solar Recording Co. • Solo Art Recordings • Sonart Record Corp. • Song Bird Record Co. • Song of the Month Club • Songcraft, Inc. • Sonora Phonograph Co., Inc. / Sonora Phonograph Corp. • Sonora Radio & Television Corp.–Sonora Record Co. Division • Sonorous Music Co., Inc. • Sorority Fraternity Records & Publications • Sound Studios of New York • South Dakota Phonograph Co. • Southern Record Corp. • Spanish Music Center / Coda Record Co. • Specialty Record Co., Inc. • Specialty Records, Inc. • Specialty Sales • Spikes Brothers Phonograph Co. • Spin Records, Inc. • Spire Records Co., Inc. • Spire Records, Ltd. • Spiro Record Corp. • Spokane Phonograph Co. • Spotlight Records, Inc. • Spotlite Record Co. • Square Deal Recording Co. • Staff Record Co. • Stanchel Record Co. • Standard Phonograph Co., Inc. [I] • Standard Phono / Phonograph Co., Inc. [II] • Standard Records, Inc. • Standard Talking Machine Co. (New York) • Stan-Lee Records • Stanley Recording Co. of America, Inc. • Stapleton Industries • Star Melodies Music Publishers • Star Record Co. • Star Talent Records • Starr Piano Co.–Gennett Records Division • State Phonograph Co. of Illinois • Steiner, John • Stellar Records, Inc. • Sterling Records, Inc. • Stinson Records / Stinson Trading Co. • Stork Record Co. • Strand Records, Inc. • Strong Record Co., Inc. • Sullivan Records • Sultan Recording Co. • Sun Recording Corp.  F • Sun Records (Detroit) • Sun Records (Memphis) • Sunbeam Recording Co. • Sunrise Record Corp. • Sunset Record Co. • Sunset Recordings • Sunshine Recording Co. / Sunshine Productions & Records • Super Discs • Superior Recording Co. • Supreme Records, Inc. • Swan Recording Co., Inc. • Swank Records • Swing Beat Records / Swing Time Record Co. • Swing-Master Record Corp. • Swing Record Co.

T — Talent Records • Talking Photo Corp. • Talk-O-Phone Co., The • Tanner Manufacturing & Distributing Co. • Taxco Recording Co. • Taylor-Lee Recording Co. • Tech-Art Recordings • Technicord Records • Tele-Records, Inc. • Tempo-Tone Recordings • Texstar Records • Tempo Record Co. of America • Tennessee Phonograph Co. • Tennessee Records • Texas Phonograph Co. • Theme Records • Thomas A. Edison, Inc.–Phonograph Division • Thomas W. Hatch, Publisher • Three Minute Record, Inc. • Thrillwood Records • Time Abroad, Ltd. • Time Record • Timely Recording Co. • Tin Pan Alley Records Co. • Titan Production Co. • Token Records • Tone Records • Top Record Co. / Top Records, Inc. • Top Tune Records • Top Tunes • Tops Music Enterprises / Tops Records • Tower Records • Town & Country Record Co., Inc. • Transcriptions Inc. • Trell Records • Trilon Record Manufacturing Co. • Tri-Color Records • Trident Records Corp. • Tri-State Recording Co. • Triumph Records • Trope Records • Trophy Record Co. • Tru Tone Productions, Inc. / Tru Tone Records, Inc. • Trumpis-Collar & Associates • Tune-Shop Music Publishers, Inc. / Tune Disk Record Corp. • 20th Century Records

U — U. S. Phonograph Co. • Ultra Record Co. • Union of Irish Industries, Inc. • Unique Music Publishers & Recording Co. • Unison Records • United Artist Records • United Broadcasting Co. • United Hebrew Disk & Cylinder Co. / United Hebrew Record Co. • United Hot Clubs of America • United Masters, Inc. • United Sound Studios / United Sound Systems • United Record Co. (Los Angeles) • United Recorders • United States Gramophone Co. • United States Phonograph Co. • United States Record Corp. • United States Record Manufacturing Corp. • Unity School of Christianity • Universal Phonograph Co. • Universal Record Co. • Universal Recording Laboratories / Universal Recording Corp. / Universal Records • Universal Recording Studios / Universal Record Co. • Universal Records • Universal Talking Machine (Manufacturing) Co. • University Records Corp. • Uptown Records • Urab Recording Studio (United Recording Artists Bureau) • Urban Record Co. • Utah Phonograph Co.

V — Value Records • Van-Es Recording Co. • Van Kampen Press • Vargo, Inc. / Vargo Record Co. • Variety Records, Inc. • Vega Records • Velvet Records • Velvet Tone Record Co. • Venus Records • Verdi Music Shops (E. E. Verdi) • Verne Recording Corp. of America • Vernon Records • Victor & Victor Predecessor Companies: Johnson Sound Recording Co. / Consolidated Talking Machine Co. / Eldridge R. Johnson / Victor Talking Machine Co. • Viking Record Co. • Vitacoustic Record Co. / Vitacoustic Records, Inc • Vocalion Records, Inc. • Vogue Recordings, Inc. • Von Battle Recording Co. • Vox Corp. of America • Vox Productions, Inc. • Vulcan Record Corp. • Vulcan Records

W — W & W Recordings & Distributors • Wabine Record Co. • Walcutt, Miller & Co. / Walcutt & Leeds / The Walcutt & Leeds Ltd. • Wallin’s Music Shop • Wallis Original Record Co. • Warner Recording Laboratories / Warner Record Co. • Webster Records • West Coast Phonograph Co. • West Coast Recordings • Western Pennsylvania Phonograph Co. • Western Records / Western Recording Co. • Western Recording Co. / Constellation Record & Distributing Co. • Western Recording Studios • Westminster Records • Wheeling Recording Co. • Williams & Rankin  • Williams, J. Mayo (“Ink”): Southern Record Corp. / Harlem Records, Inc. / “Ink,” Inc. / Mayo Music / Ebony Records • Whirling Disc • White Church Recording Co. • Willow Walk Industries • Winchester Sound • Winsett Recording Laboratory • Winston Holmes Music Co. • Wisconsin Phonograph Co. • Wonder Records • WOR Electrical Recording & Transcription Services / WOR Recording Studios • World Broadcasting System, Inc. / World Transcription Studios • World Records, Inc. • World’s Greatest Music • Wright Record Corp. • Wrightman, Neale: Neale Wrightman Publishers / Wrightman Music, Inc. / Wrightman Record Co. / Wrimus Co. • Wyoming Phonograph Co.

 Y — Yaddo • Yale Record Co. • Yerkes Recording Laboratories • Your Record Co.

Z — Zarvah Art Record Co. • Zenith Recording Co. • Zimra Corp. • Zora Record Co. / Zora Recording Studios

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