“‘Twenties” and “Berliner Gramophone Records” Have Sold Out

.
The following Mainspring Press titles have sold out as of 10/18/2017 and will not be reprinted:

  • Recording the ‘Twenties (Sutton)
  • Berliner Gramophone Records in America (Charosh)

Be sure to order soon if there are still titles you need — Most are now in very short supply (a carton or less in some cases), and Mainspring’s book business will be closing in early 2018 or upon sell-out of the existing inventory, whichever comes first.

 

The Chicago Premium-Scheme Labels Revisited (1904 – 1920)

The Chicago Premium-Scheme Labels Revisited
(1904 – 1920)
By Allan Sutton

 

In 1902, the Victor Talking Machine Company began producing inexpensive Type P “Premium” phonographs that retailers could give away as an incentive to purchase other merchandise. There had been similar premium schemes earlier, employing both disc and cylinder machines as the bait, but Victor’s machines were the first to enjoy any significant popularity. Unlike later premium-scheme models, the Type P played standard records.

Beginning in 1904, several Chicago distributors took the idea a step further, employing a tied-products model (sometimes referred to as the “razor-and-blade ploy”). The phonographs were modified in various ways, most often with nonstandard spindles or mandrels, to ensure that they were compatible only with the matching records. They usually were the manufacturers’ cheapest or discontinued models, given new brand names. According to the distributors’ sales pitch, any loss the dealer took by giving the machines away would quickly be recouped by sales of the compatible, high-margin records to a captive audience.

.

ROBERT JOHNS AND THE STANDARD TALKING MACHINE COMPANY

The first to successfully exploit the tied-product models on a large scale was the Chicago-based Standard Talking Machine Company. Launched in 1904, and it was advertising nationally by December of that year. In reality, as later court records make clear, Standard Talking Machine was simply a trade name of Robert Johns, a jobber in pottery and other household goods who was affiliated with the East Liverpool China Company of East Liverpool, Ohio. Standard initially occupied offices at 196–202 Monroe Street and was unrelated to several other identically named firms. (An identically named company was incorporated in Chicago in March 1905, with a meager capitalization of $2,500, but none of its incorporators are persons known to have been associated with Johns’ operation, and its connection, if any, remains unclear.)

.

Early Standard ads, from (top to bottom) December 1904, January 1905, and March 1905. These dealers gave away the machines with the purchase of other merchandise; later offers often required the purchase of two-dozen or more Standard records to receive the free machines. Standard’s first phonograph offering, shown here, was Columbia’s bare-bones Model AU; refitted with a ½” spindle, it became the Standard Model AA. More-substantial models were soon made available.

.

East Liverpool China was a major manufacturer of tableware and crockery. Much of its output was employed in premium schemes, being given away to stimulate the sale of more profitable items. Johns would employ that model for Standard Talking Machine, offering a free phonograph to individual customers or dealers who purchased a specified number of discs. (Terms of the plans varied considerably, and retailers at first had some leeway to set their own conditions. in later years, Standard also wholesaled the discs outright, unencumbered by any “free” phonograph offers.) The phonographs employed oversized (½”) spindles to thwart the use of ordinary pressings, forcing owners to purchase Standard discs. That was the theory, at least; in reality, there were some fairly easy work-arounds, the simplest of which involved simply drilling-out ordinary discs to fit the oversized spindles.

American Graphophone (Columbia) supplied the records and phonographs, which were rebranded with the Standard name. The phonographs were obsolete or low-end Columbia models with slight modifications, the most obvious being the oversized spindles.

.

A rare, early sunken-label Standard 7″ pressing (left), with Standard’s conditions sticker pasted over the Columbia original (right). Produced only briefly, the sunken-label pressings used delicate, tissue-thin labels that that were original to the discs (i.e., not paste-overs).

.

Standard originally offered both 7″ and 10″ black-and-silver label single-sided discs, using the same catalog numbers as the corresponding Columbia issues. The 7″ series was phased out after Columbia discontinued production of small-diameter discs in 1906. The black-and-silver (and later, black-and-gold) labels were applied at the time the discs were pressed, disproving the widely circulated tale that all Standard records were simply relabeled dead stock. The later Standard catalogs, in particular, were reasonably up-to-date, sometimes lagging Columbia’s release of a new title by just a few months.

.

Contrary to some hobbyists’ accounts, Standard was not solely a dumping-ground for Columbia’s dead inventory (although it did serve that purpose admirably). Current hits sometimes turned up on Standard just a few months after they were released on Columbia. This 1914 Standard catalog includes new titles that Columbia released in the late spring of that year.

.

There were, of course, plenty of relabeled surplus Columbia pressings as well, including many titles whose sales potential had long since been exhausted. They are easily distinguished by their slightly oversized labels (at first in green-and-white labels, later in black-and-white), which were pasted over the Columbia originals.

 

BUSY BEE AND THE O’NEILL-JAMES COMPANY

At about the same time that Robert Johns was organizing Standard Talking Machine, Columbia began supplying Arthur J. O’Neill with cylinder phonograph and records for use in premium schemes, under the Busy Bee trademark. The O’Neill-James Company (originally of 185 Dearborn Street, and later Fifth Avenue at Lake Street, Chicago) was founded by O’Neill, Winifred B. James, and Sherwin N. Bisbee, with an initial capital stock offering of $25,000. Incorporation papers for the O’Neill-James Company were filed with the Illinois Secretary of State on April 14, 1904, and the final certificate of incorporation was issued on April 22.

.

A December 1904 ad for the Busy Bee cylinder phonograph, in this case given free with a $10 purchase. The machine was Columbia’s bottom-of-the-line Type Q, fitted with a nonstandard mandrel that prevented the use of ordinary cylinders. More-substantial models were later offered.

.

O’Neill was a master of the tied-product model, having already employed it successfully in selling non-phonographic goods. In 1904, the O’Neill-James Company began marketing a slightly modified version of the inexpensive Columbia Model Q cylinder phonograph under the Busy Bee brand. By substituting a mandrel with a nonstandard taper, O’Neill was able to create a captive market for Busy Bee cylinders, which Columbia manufactured with a corresponding nonstandard inner taper. Following the same model, in late 1905 or early 1906 O’Neill-James introduced Busy Bee disc phonographs with a large, rigid rectangular lug projecting from the turntable, which required the use of special Busy Bee discs with a corresponding cut-out through the label area. This proved to be less effective than the cylinder design, since the lug could be removed from the turntable with a bit of effort.

.

John O. Prescott (of Hawthorne, Sheble & Prescott / American Record Company) belatedly filed his patent for pressing Busy Bee discs, with their characteristic rectangular slots, in January1907 — the same month that Columbia won its case against the American Record Company, effectively putting it out of business. Later Busy Bee discs were supplied by several other manufacturers, including Columbia (indirectly, by way of Hawthorne & Sheble minus Prescott).

.

The sequence of Busy Bee’s suppliers can be determined from its catalogs and supplements. The earliest advertised Busy Bee discs were single-sided 7″ American Record Company (Hawthorne, Sheble & Prescott) pressings, duplicating material from that company’s short-lived 7″ series, but pressed in standard black shellac rather than American’s distinctive blue. Busy Bee probably was the unnamed customer that The Talking Machine World reported had ordered a half-million 7″ pressings in February 1906. American Record’s Busy Bee releases included recordings made as early as 1904 (and some later Columbia-made releases used 1903 recordings), which has led some collectors to mistakenly assume that the label was introduced earlier than was actually the case.

American also supplied 10¾” (and, slightly later, 10″) Busy Bee pressings drawn from its catalog of 1904–1906, again pressed in standard black shellac. Some early 10¾” Busy Bee issues used the full American Record catalog numbers, but most used only the last four digits of the corresponding American issues (e.g., American Record Company 031129 = Busy Bee 1129). Like other American Record Company client-label pressings, these records often have spoken announcements that omit the artist and company credits.

Records from several suppliers appear concurrently in later Busy Bee catalogs, in different numerical blocks. Leeds & Catlin was a major supplier to Busy Bee and produced some of the highest-numbered 7″ issues. They also remade some issues that replaced the earlier American Record Company–derived versions, retaining the original titles and catalog numbers but often using different artists (much to the befuddlement of some early discographers).

Leeds’ 10″ single-sided Busy Bee issues (shown as “Grand Busy Bee Records” in the catalog, although not on the labels, and numbered in an A-prefixed series) used the same recordings as Leeds, Imperial, Sun, and related labels. They are easily recognized by Leeds’ mirror-image master-number stampings. Some of the same material was later issued in double-sided form in a short-lived D- prefixed catalog series, examples of which rank among the rarest Busy Bee issues. A wide outer band was added to labels on double-sided pressings to accommodate the disclaimers that normally appeared on the reverse-side stickers.

Masters in Busy Bee’s 2000, 3000, 4400, and 5000 catalog series are from Columbia, by way of Hawthorne & Sheble, which substituted their Star catalog numbers for Columbia’s along the way. The short-lived “Grand Busy Bee Twelve-Inch” series was from the same source, using the same 1200-series catalog numbers as Star, with the addition of a T- prefix. Most of the Columbia-derived Busy Bee discs were pressed in the Hawthorne & Sheble plant, on solid stock. A few late Star issues were laminated pressings,  almost certainly made by Columbia (which held the patent on that process) but still showing Hawthorne & Sheble’s markings and substitute catalog numbers in the wax. The Universal Talking Machine Company (Zonophone) also supplied pressing to Busy Bee for a short time before a Columbia lawsuit put an end to that relationship.

 

HARMONY AND THE GREAT NORTHERN MANUFACTURING COMPANY

Harmony, a new premium-scheme label, appeared in 1907. The records were originally marketed by the Great Northern Manufacturing Company (147–153 Fifth Avenue, Chicago), which actually was the recently reorganized East Liverpool China Company. Thus, the Harmony and Standard labels shared a common connection from the start, although at first they used different suppliers and distributors.

Great Northern marketed a wide array of crockery, tableware, and similar merchandise. Harmony records initially were part of a premium-scheme operation in which inexpensive phonographs were given free to retailers who purchased a certain quantity of Great Northern’s household goods. The company oversaw a network of traveling salesmen who peddled Harmony discs and the accompanying “free” phonographs to small-town and rural dealers. Complaints over deceptive advertisements and sales contracts were common, as exemplified by the 1911 case of Great Northern Mfg. Co. v. Brown, in which Great Northern was found guilty of misrepresentation and fraud in the wording of their advertising materials.

Harmony phonographs were manufactured with ¾” spindles, a ¼” step up from Standard. The records originally were pressed by Hawthorne & Sheble, using many of the same renumbered Columbia masters that appeared on Busy Bee. All known Hawthorne & Sheble-produced Harmony issues are single-sided pressings, with no artist credits on the labels. Hawthorne & Sheble also manufactured the early Harmony phonographs, which infringed patents on lateral recording and reproduction.

Hawthorne & Sheble’s Harmony series was discontinued in 1909, after H&S was forced into bankruptcy. Production for Great Northern was taken over by Columbia, which reintroduced Harmony as a double-sided brand, using the same couplings and catalog numbers as corresponding Columbia releases. The Columbia pressings included reissues of material recorded as early as 1903 and, unlike the earlier Hawthorne & Sheble series, they often credited the performers on the labels.

.

An early Columbia-produced Harmony (left), still crediting the Great Northern Manufacturing Company; the anonymous baritone is veteran minstrel-show producer Lew Dockstader. Later versions of the Harmony label (right) credited the Harmony Talking Machine, a trade name of Robert Johns’ reorganized Standard Talking Machine Company.

.

As with Standard, the labels usually were applied directly at the time of pressing, dispelling the notion that all Harmony records were relabeled surplus stock. However, many surplus Columbia pressings were also sold under Harmony paste-over labels. One of the most interesting examples is Paul Southe’s “Cubanola Glide,” the original Columbia issue of which was quickly replaced by a Collins & Harlan remake. The unsold Southe pressings ended up as anonymous Harmony paste-overs (and perhaps Standard as well, although we’ve not seen one). Southe’s “Cubanola Glide,” by the way, is not nearly the great rarity that Hobbies columnist Jim Walsh once made it out to be. A fair number of the original Columbia pressings apparently got into circulation before the delisting, and in addition to the paste-overs,  the recording even appeared later on the Climax and D&R labels, in entirely different couplings.

,Great Northern ended its involvement with the record business in late 1911. Although the company was still selling household goods late as January 1918, Harmony records from 1912 onward were marketed by the Harmony Talking Machine Company, a trade name of Robert Johns’ Standard Talking Machine Company.

 

THE BUSY BEE–TO–ARETINO TRANSITION

Although Busy Bee records continued to sell well during this period, the O’Neill-James Company’s reliance on distant, competing suppliers eventually led to the line’s downfall. Shipments from the East Coast pressing plants were often late, and O’Neill filed several lawsuits during 1908–1909 to recover damages and overcharges on rail shipments of the records. There were legal obstacles as well. In 1909, Victor sued Columbia for “the supplying of records to O’Neill-James Company of Chicago for use on infringing machines manufactured by Hawthorne & Sheble Manufacturing Company.” In turn, Columbia sued Victor’s Universal Talking Machine subsidiary to prevent it from supplying Zonophone pressings to O’Neill-James and Aretino. In the meantime, Leeds & Catlin had been forced to discontinue operations after losing to Victor in a patent-infringement suit that was decided in the latter’s favor by the Supreme Court.

With its supply line severed, O’Neill-James dropped the Busy Bee line in 1909. The last known advertisements for Busy Bee records appeared during the summer of that year. O’Neill-James continued to use the Busy Bee brand for vacuum cleaners and other household appliances for a time.

Busy Bee was not O’Neill’s only record venture, however. On June 3, 1907, he had launched The Aretino Company, which according to a Talking Machine World report was controlled by O’Neill-James. Aretino marketed phonographs equipped with massive 3″ spindles. They initially were supplied by the Hawthorne & Sheble Manufacturing Company, then later by Columbia. O’Neill’s patent application of April 11, 1907, covering the oversized spindle, as well as square and polygonal spindles that were never put into production, was granted on December 31, 1907. He also patented and sold adapters that allowed Aretino discs to be used on Busy Bee and ordinary turntables. Aretino’s gaping spindle holes reduced the labels to narrow bands with barely enough room for even basic label information.

.

Arthur J. O’Neill’s 1907 patent on the Aretino disc, along with square- and hexagonal-spindle versions that were never produced. The specimen pictured is a scarce Leeds & Catlin double-sided pressing, produced just shortly before the company was forced out of business by an adverse Supreme Court decision in 1909.

 

The earliest known Aretino releases were anonymous, single-sided pressings from Leeds & Catlin masters, with A-prefixed catalog numbers (not to be confused with Columbia’s A-prefixed Double Discs). Leeds also produced a series of now-rare D-prefixed double-sided Aretino pressings shortly before suspending operations in 1909. Single-sided pressings from Hawthorne & Sheble matrices, showing Busy Bee catalog numbers in the pressing (which were simply renumberings of Columbia masters) have also been reported.

Ironically (considering that Victor had successfully sued Aretino for patent infringement in 1909), O’Neill turned to Victor’s Zonophone subsidiary as its source of pressings following Leeds & Catlin’s demise. The series was brought to a quick halt by the American Graphophone Company (Columbia), which in the same year sued Universal to prevent its supplying discs to Aretino, the O’Neill-James Company, and other companies whose machines infringed its patents.

.

Aretino products were used in several different premium schemes. Some companies gave the machines away with the purchase of other merchandise (top). More often, they were given away with the purchase of a specified number of records (bottom). In the case shown here, the phonograph would not have been truly “free,” since the records were marked up by a total of $6.30 to partially compensate for the cost of the machine.

.

After the O’Neill-James Company’s Busy Bee label was discontinued in 1909, the company took over distribution of Aretino records, although its name never appeared on the labels. With Zonophone, Hawthorne & Sheble, and Leeds & Catlin eliminated a suppliers, O’Neill was forced to turn to Columbia, which agreed to supply the records on consignment. Columbia pressed double-sided discs for Aretino in at least two series, both of which drew on standard Columbia masters: An A-prefixed series (which duplicated Columbia’s couplings and should not be confused with Leeds & Catlin’s earlier single-sided A-prefixed series), and a D-prefixed series (which used different couplings). Columbia also produced a few 12″ Aretino pressings. Some late Aretino pressings are known with ordinary spindle holes.

The last known advertisements for Aretino record appeared in the summer of 1915, shortly before O’Neill-James Company (which had recently become a Pathé distributor) was declared bankrupt on June 12. Post-mortem reports claimed that the company’s financial troubles had begun during 1906–1907, with losses incurred from patent litigation, and were compounded by the failure of the Boston Talking Machine Company (the makers of Phono-Cut records), for which O’Neill-James was a jobber.

Columbia filed suit in July 1915 to recover unsold records it had shipped on consignment to O’Neill-James. The petition was dismissed on December 7, and the company’s trustee requested permission to sell the remaining inventory. Some of the records found their way to the obscure Duplex Record Company (unrelated to the earlier Duplex Phonograph Company of Kalamazoo, Michigan), which filled the large center holes and covered over the patch with its own Duplex labels. Similar Aretino patch-up jobs have been seen with Musique labels.

O’Neill announced his intention to re-enter the record business, but nothing further was reported in that regard. Following his death in 1916, the remains of O’Neill James and Aretino businesses were merged with the Johns brothers’ Harmony, Standard, and United operations to form the Consolidated Talking Machine Company of Chicago.

 

DOUBLE AND REVERSIBLE

The D & R Record Company was the last significant new entrant in the Chicago premium-scheme market. Launched in 1908, it was advertising nationally by December of that year. The acronym stood for “Double and Reversible,” a strong selling point at a time when double-sided discs were making their first inroads. Early D & R ads promised that a “splendid talking machine” would be given away to advertise the new records:

We are not selling talking machines, but actually giving them away, without money and without price. We are doing this to quickly advertise and introduce our wonderful D&R (Double and Reversible) Talking Machine Records in every home. … Bear in mind that you simply agree to buy “D&R” Records as you need them — and the machine becomes yours without once cent of cost…. We are absolutely independent. Hence this remarkable offer. Our business is selling records — not machines.

D&R’s early advertising was often vague, with no mention of the strings attached to the free machine. Later D&R advertisements were more forthcoming, disclosing that the machines were indeed free, but only to customers who signed agreements to purchase from twelve to twenty D&R records, depending upon the model of phonograph desired.

.

Early D&R advertisements were often vague regarding what was required to secure a “free” machine. This one, from 1909, mentions near the bottom of the ad that a monthly record purchase is required, but doesn’t state how many had to be purchased, or the price.

.

Initially, D&R’s records were supplied by Leeds & Catlin, which had recently begun producing double-sided pressings for other client labels. After Leeds was forced to discontinue production in 1909, the label was turned over to Columbia. Unlike the other Chicago premium-scheme labels, the D&R discs were not “handicapped” in any way. They were pressed with ordinary spindle holes, and the artists were usually credited on the labels.

.

An early Leeds & Catlin D&R (left). Much to the confusion of some discographers, Leeds retained the original Imperial single-face numbers on its couplings,one of which was chosen to serve as the D&R catalog number; thus, one side will be correctly numbered, while the other will not. For the specimen above, #45179 is actually the number of Henry Burr’s “Will the Angels Let Me Play,” on the reverse side. Columbia’s later D & R offerings included Paul Southe’s “Cubanola Glide,” which had been almost immediately dropped from Columbia’s own catalog in favor of a Collins & Harlan remake.

.

D&R also differed from its counterparts in not using Columbia’s catalog numbers or couplings. Many D&R couplings — such as banjoist Vess L. Ossman’s tremendously popular “St. Louis Tickle” and “The Smiler,” each of which had been paired with negligible “filler” titles on Columbia — were more appealing than Columbia’s own. By the end of 1912, however, D & R was no more.

.

THE STANDARD – HARMONY – UNITED CONSOLIDATION

While O’Neill-James was struggling, and D&R was just getting its foot in the door, Roberts Johns was building Standard Talking Machine into a major business with strong nationwide sales. He was now managing three premium-scheme operations operating out of three separate offices — the Standard, Harmony, and United Talking Machine companies.

.

.

The latter was a newly added line, sporting 1½” spindles and spindle holes. Also supplied by Columbia, United offered basically the same material as Standard and Harmony. Its dealings were not always the most ethical, if the number of lawsuit filed against the company is any indication. The case of United Talking Machine Co. v. Metcalf (175 S.W. 357) reveals its selling methods. Like Harmony, United employed traveling salesmen who required retailers to sign binding sales contracts. For $20.80, dealers were supposed to receive 32 discs United records (paying the full list price of 65¢ per record), a “free” Symphony Hornless Talking Machine, and a package of 100 needles. Under terms of their contracts, United retailers were required to give away the machines to customers who purchased a specified number of records. The retailers were assured verbally (never in writing) that they would easily recoup their losses on the machine give-aways from sales of the matching discs. Dealers could also order individual records, without the “free” machines, for 39¢ each wholesale. However, as testimony in several lawsuits revealed, the contract terms were not always made clear to United’s customers (who were often rural shopkeepers with little business acumen), the records proved to be unsalable to owners of ordinary phonographs, and the “free” machines did not always arrive as promised.

Such complaints did nothing to stall the growth of the Standard, Harmony, and United operations, which in 1912 were finally consolidated in the Heiser Building at Dearborn and Harrison Streets in Chicago. The Standard Talking Machine Company was reorganized and incorporated in 1913 to manage all three lines, with Robert Johns handling the Standard and United divisions, and Thomas E. Johns handling Harmony. Although each marketed essentially the same merchandise, court records make it clear that the three divisions continued to maintain separate legal identities.

Labeling errors sometimes occurred after the 1912 consolidation. It is not uncommon, for example, to find pressings with Standard labels on one side and Harmony labels on the other. Around 1914, decorative concentric rings were added to the Harmony and Standard labels, spaced at the exact intervals to serve as drilling guides for those label’s larger spindle holes. In a final blurring of the lines, some late Standard issues were produced with regular spindle holes, some Harmony issues appeared with Standard holes, and some pressings carried Harmony labels on one side and Standard labels on the other.

Robert Johns died in February 1915, and Standard appears to have suspended operations a short time later.

 

THE CONSOLIDATED TALKING MACHINE COMPANY

 In January 1916, the Standard, Harmony, United, and Aretino operations were merged as the Consolidated Talking Machine Company. Operating at 227 West Lake Street (later, 227–229 West Washington Street) in Chicago, Consolidated advertised itself as “Successors to Standard Talking Machine Co., United Talking Machine Co., Harmony Talking Machine Co., O’Neill-James Co., Aretino Co.” It offered surplus inventory from those companies for several years, as well as a repair service for the premium-scheme machines, along with its own line of Consola phonographs.

Although the company soon introduced its own Consolidated label, it was still advertising surplus Standard, Harmony, and United pressings as late as 1918 when, amazingly, the retail price of those records was raised from 75¢ to $1 each, probably killing what few sales might otherwise have remained. Like the various lines they eventually replaced, Consolidated-label records were simply modified Columbia pressings, often with Consolidated labels pasted over the originals. Harmony-type pressings (¾” spindle hole) pressings seem to have been the default, but Consolidated records are also known with normal, ½” (Standard-type), and 1½” (United-type) spindle holes, reflecting the company’s commitment to supply records for nearly the full range of nonstandard-spindle machines. The only type that has not been found with a Consolidated paste-over label is Aretino.

.

The once-orderly assignment of spindle holes became rather haphazard during Standard Talking Machine’s last days. The Harmony pressing above has a Standard (½”) hole rather than Harmony’s usual ¾” hole, with circular drilling guides for Harmony and United. Consolidated pressings are known with holes to fit all three of those machines, in addition to ordinary spindle holes. This late example has typeset label information, which was typed or rubber-stamped on earlier labels.

.

Consolidated’s couplings and catalog numbers were identical with those of the corresponding Columbia releases, but Columbia’s “A” prefixes often were dropped from the catalog numbers. The labels were cheaply printed, with a blank space for typed or rubber-stamped titles and credits (some late printings used typeset label information). Catalog numbers confirm that Consolidated continued to purchase and relabel Columbia pressings through at least early 1920. The records were later sold at a deep discount, but any remaining stock probably was destroyed when the Consolidated Building burned in January 1924.

In the meantime, the Consolidated Talking Machine Company had become affiliated with the General Phonograph Corporation (the makers of Okeh records), and it went on to become a major distributor for Okeh. Consolidated invoices and letterheads from the early 1920s state that the company was a “Manufacturer of Talking Machines, Repair Parts, Records, and Accessories and Distributor of Okeh Records, Bubble Books, and Granby Phonographs.”

Consolidated underwent a major shift in its method of operation in the early 1920s, as it became more closely affiliated with General Phonograph. Under E. A. Fearne’s expert management, the company became actively involved in recruiting and promoting Okeh’s race-record talent. Beginning in 1923 it provided space for Chicago’s Okeh studio, and a branch office for Ralph Peer, in the Consolidated Building. The last remnant of the Chicago premium-scheme operations, Consolidated Talking Machine Company finally closed in the early 1930s.

______

If you enjoyed this posting, be sure to check out A Phonograph in Every Home: The Evolution of the American Recording Industry, 1900-1919, available from Mainspring Press. Quantities are limited — order soon.

______

Selected References

Biennial Report of the Secretary of State of the State of Illinois (Fiscal Years Beginning October 1, 1902, and Ending September 30, 1904), p. 113. Springfield: Illinois State Journal Company (1905).

Blacker, George, William R. Bryant, et al. Busy Bee ephemera, research notes, and discographical data (unpublished, n.d.). William R. Bryant papers, Mainspring Press archive.

D & R (Double & Reversible) Talking Machine Records. (1909 catalog).

Grand Busy Bee Records — Catalog D (undated).

Great Northern Mfg. Co. v. Brown. Supreme Judicial Court of Maine (February 12, 1915). 113 Me. 51, 92 A. 993.

Johns v. Jaycox et al. March 9, 1912. 67 Wash. 403, 121 P. 854.

Johns v. Wilbur. May 28, 1915. 169 A.D. 905.

O’Neill, Arthur J., Assignor to the Aretino Company. “Talking Machine.” U.S. Patent #874,985 (filed April 11, 1907; issued December 31, 1907).

O’Neill-James Co. Grand Busy Bee Records, Catalogue D (n.d.).

Standard Talking Machine Co.: Standard Double-Disc Record Catalogue (1911–1914 inclusive).

United Talking Mach. Co. v. Metcalf. Court of Appeals of Kentucky (April 22,

Untitled obituary (Robert Johns). The Pottery & Glass Salesman (February 25, 1915), p. 29.

 

© 2017 by Allan R. Sutton. All rights are reserved.

 

 

 

Forgotten Phonograph-Gadget Inventors: Louis Devineau

Louis Devineau surfaced in Cleveland in the late 1890s as a French instructor, and by the early 1900s he was working for the Federal Manufacturing Company, a Cleveland automobile-chassis manufacturer. He was also patenting some interesting after-market accessories for the phonograph, beginning with a folding horn in 1905. His light-weight self-supporting horn was first advertised for sale in September 1907:

.

.

Devineau’s Biophone, one of many attempts to convert cylinders players to disc, or vice-versa, was quite the monstrosity. A model incorporating some obvious departures from the original patent drawing made it to market in late 1907, although it does not appear to have been a commercial success:

.

.

Devineau eventually endeared himself to some local  politicians, and by 1908 he was serving as secretary of the Cleveland Sinking Fund Commission, which he apparently treated as his private treasury. In February 1909, a $12,840 shortage was discovered, with Devineau nowhere to be found. The papers reported that he had last been heard from in Belgium. A warrant was issued for his arrest on embezzlement charges, but nothing more was reported.

_____

If you enjoy early phonographs and related items, Be sure to check out Vintage Phonograph Ads, 1895-1925, available from Mainspring Press.

Some Oddball Phonograph Patents (1902 – 1906)

This bizarre phonograph, employing a record and turntable in the form of a truncated cone, was patented by Louis P. Valiquet, of Zonophone fame. One advantage was said to be that the record was less likely to slip on the turntable than a standard flat disc.

.

Emile Berliner’s device for increasing volume, employing six synchronized turntables. A later “improvement” stacked the turntables vertically.

.

 

F. F. Shanks of Chicago patented this reproducer-less device consisting of an extended rod that carried the sound vibrations directly from the stylus to an attachment of the user’s choosing (the filing mentions a snare-drum head, banjo, or other stringed instrument), which served as a resonator.

.

 

A more direct approach to musical-instrument-as reproducer, in this case a complete violin. A version of this machine was actually manufactured in France.

.

 

For when the “just stuff a sock in it” approach won’t do, here’s a  marvelous piece of German over-engineering. This sadistic-looking device was patented by Albert Conze of Berlin and specified a muffler-ball of leather, cork, or felt. Edison later employed the same general idea in his Diamond Disc machines, but with the adjusting mechanism neatly tucked away below the bedplate.

The Birth of Commercially Viable Magnetic Sound Recording (1900)

In 1900, Danish inventor Valdemar Poulsen patented the first commercially viable magnetic sound recorder, which he boldly predicted would “replace the phonographs hitherto in use.” References to the potential for magnetic recording can be found dating back to the late 1870s, and there were later patent filings  on  magnetic recorders of questionable utility, including one by Victor Emerson that employed “the crumbling action of a magnetic needle” (1904). But Poulson’s magnetic wire-recorder, the application for which had a rather bumpy ride through the U.S. Patent Office, was the first to find its way into commercial production.

.

.

The device was featured at the Paris Exposition in 1900, where Emperor Franz Joseph reportedly made a recording. In late 1903, Stilson Hutchins chartered the American Telegraphone Company to market the machines in the United States. The ad below appeared in 1906:

,

.

.

Intended to record phone calls and dictation, the Telegraphone lacked the amplification and technical capabilities that would have been needed were it ever to “replace the phonographs hitherto in use.” Although it was not a commercial success, American Telegraphone somehow survived into 1920, when it was placed in receivership.

_______

For more on recording-industry pioneers of the early 1900s, be sure to check out A Phonograph in Every Home: Evolution of the American Recording Industry, 1900 – 1919, available from Mainspring Press and many libraries.

Early Columbia Cylinder Phonograph Outfits (Chicago Projecting Company, c. 1901 – 1902)

Some tantalizing ads for Columbia cylinder outfits from a rare catalog issued by the Chicago Projecting Company (225 Dearborn Street). In addition to projectors, films, stereoptions and slides, and related items, the company stocked a wide array of Columbia and and Victor merchandise.

The catalog is undated but includes Victor Monarch “pre-matrix” discs that were recorded as late as October 1901, suggesting a late 1901 or early 1902 publication. By that time, high-volume molded cylinders were beginning to enter the market, and the ear-tubes, oversized “exhibition horns,” and Concert-type cylinders offered here were on the verge of obsolescence.

One page implies that the company was making its own cylinders, picturing an unbranded cylinder and bragging that “our records…made with much greater care than the ordinary records,” while another shows a Concert-type cylinder in a special Chicago Projecting Company box (but with a Columbia lid). In fact, they were all Columbia cylinders, using Columbia’s catalog numbers.

.

 

Progress Report: “American Record Company and Producers, 1888 – 1950” (865 Entries, and Counting)

American Record Companies and Producers, 1888 – 1950:
Progress Report
By Allan Sutton

 

American Record Companies and Producers, 1888 – 1950 is on track to release online in mid-2018. For those of you not already familiar with the project, it covers in detail all American companies and producers of commercial recordings (cylinder and disc) from the beginning of commercial record production in the 1880s to the start of LP era in 1950.

Unlike my earlier American Record Labels and Companies, this work focuses primarily on the companies themselves. The label information is still there, of course, but is now incorporated within the entries on each label’s respective producer.

Not  covered are non-commercial and special-use recordings (radio transcriptions, film sound-track discs, audition recordings, etc.); children’s labels and educational or instructional records; one-off promotional or personal records, etc. You will find numerous jukebox-only labels, record divisions set up by schlocky music publishers to plug tunes the major labels wouldn’t take, and short-lived ventures whose only purpose seems to have been to sell off their masters to larger companies as quickly as possible, deposit the check, and shut down.

You’ll also meet a colorful cast of characters, ranging from the industry’s true heroes to an American Nazi, a Soviet spy, a four-time loser who just didn’t know when to quit, any number of record pirates, and a Texas furniture dealer-turned-studio owner who ran for president on an eerily familiar “throw the Washington bums out and let us real smart business guys run the country” platform (he lost; folks weren’t quite so gullible back then).

Plans are for this to be an online-only publication, because of the opportunity afforded to revise and expand on-the-fly, something essential with a work of this scope and magnitude. Headings to each entry include date range for record production, office and studio addresses, master sources, pressing plants used, and labels  produced. Entries range from several paragraphs to twenty pages, and full source citations (mainly primary-source) appear in each. There are no plans to illustrate the work at the moment, but that’s always an option as things evolve.

As of today, the following 865 entries are essentially “complete” and in final fact-checking and editing (an additional 125 entries not listed here are still in various stage of completion):

 

A-1 RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   A-1 RECORDS OF AMERICA  (Discs)  •   ABBEY RECORD CORPORATION / ABBEY RECORDS, INC. / PETER DORAINE, INC.  (Discs)   •   ACME RADIO & RECORD CORPORATION, et al.  (Discs)   •   ADMIRAL RECORDS, INC. / ADAM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ADVANCE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ADVENTURE RECORD COMPANY / ADVENTURE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ADVERTISER PUBLISHING COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   ADVERTISERS RECORDING SERVICE, INC.  (Discs)   •   AEOLIAN COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   AETNA MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AGUILA RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALABAMA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   ALADDIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ALBEN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALCO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALCO RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALERT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ALEGENE SOUND AND RADIO COMPANY / ALGENE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ALLEGRO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ALLENDER RECORD DISTRIBUTORS  (Discs)   •   ALLENTOWN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ALLIED (PHONOGRAPH AND) RECORD MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ALPHA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ALVIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AM RECORDS / AMERICAN MUSIC  (Discs)   •   AMBASSADOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN ELITE, INC. (Discs)   •   AMERICAN GLOSSITE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MUSIC, ARTS AND DRAMA  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN JAZZ, INC.  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN ODEON CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION SERVICE  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING ARTISTS / ARA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN TALKING MACHINE COMPANY [I]  (Cylinders)   •   AMERICAN TALKING MACHINE COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   AMERICAN VITAPHONE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMERICANA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AMIGO MUSIC PUBLISHING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMMOR RECORD CORPORATION / AMMOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AMUKE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ANTILLIAN MUSIC FEATURES, INC.  (Discs)   •   APEX RECORDING LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   APEX RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   APOLLO RECORDS, INC. / RAINBOW RECORD SHOP  (Discs)   •   APPLIANCES COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   ARCADIA RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   ARCO RECORDS   •   ARDEN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ARDENE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ARISTA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARISTOCRAT RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARROW PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ART SERVICE MUSIC  (Discs)   •   ARTIST RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ARTISTIC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ARTISTS MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ARTO COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   ARVID RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ASA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ASCH RECORDING STUDIOS / ASCH RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED CINEMA STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED DISTRIBUTORS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ASSOCIATED STUDIOS BROADCASTING AND RECORDING  (Discs)   •   ATLAS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ATLANTIC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ATOMIC RECORD COMPANY / ATOMIC, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUBURN BUTTON WORKS  (Discs)   •   AUDEON CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   AUDIENCE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUDIO COMPANY OF AMERICA / ACA RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   AUTOGRAPH RECORDS  (Discs)   •   AVALON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   AYO RECORDS  (Discs)

B. J. EXPLOITATION COMPANY (Discs) •   BACCHANAL RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)  •   BACHMAN STUDIO  (Discs)   •   BACIGALUPI, PETER & SONS  (Cylinders)   •   BACLORA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BALDWIN RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BALKAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BALLEN RECORD COMPANY / GOTHAM RECORD CORPORATION)  (Discs)   •   BANDWAGON RECORDS, INC. / BENNETT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BANNER RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BARTHEL RECORDS / BARTHEL, INC.  (Discs)   •   BATT MASIAN COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BEBE DANIELS, INC.   •  BEE BEE BEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORD COMPANY / BELL RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORD COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   BELL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BEL-TONE RECORDING CORPORATION (I)  (Discs)   •   BELTONE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BERLINER COMPANIES: American Gramophone Company; United States Gramophone Company; Berliner Gramophone Company  (Discs)   •   BESA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BETTINI PHONOGRAPH LABORATORY  (Cylinders)   •   BIBLETONE  (Discs)   •   BIG NICKEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLACK AND WHITE RECORDS / BLACK AND WHITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE DANUBE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLU-DISC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE BONNET MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE LABEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLUE NOTE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLUE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE RIBBON MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BLUE STAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BLU-WHITE RECORD COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   BONEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BONGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOP RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BORNAND MUSIC BOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOST RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BOSTON TALKING MACHINE COMPANY / PHONO-CUT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRADLEY, RICHARD AND ASSOCIATES  (Discs)   •   BRIDGEPORT DIE & MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRINCKERHOFF & COMPANY, INC. / BRINCKERHOFF STUDIOS, INC.–TIME ABROAD / GENERAL SOUND CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BROADCAST RECORDERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   BROADCAST RECORDING STUDIOS / BROADCAST RECORDS  (Discs)   •   BRONZE RECORDING STUDIO / BRONZE RECORD & RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BROOME, GEORGE  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK-BALKE-COLLENDER COMPANY  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK RADIO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BRUNSWICK RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   BULLET RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY / BULLEIT ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   BURKE & ROUS  (Cylinders)   •   BURNETTE, SMILEY  (Discs)   •   BURT (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY, THE  (Discs)

C & S PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   C. H. BOURNE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CADET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CADILLAC RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   CADILLAC RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   CALIFORNIA RECORD (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY (Discs)   •   CALIFORNIA RECORDING COMPANY (Discs)   •   CAMEO RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CANZONET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAPITAL SOUND STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   CAPITOL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CAPITOL ROLL & RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAPRI RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CARDINAL RECORDS, INC.   •   CA-SONG RECORD COMPANY / AUTO-PHOTO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORD COMPANY ( (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORDS, INC. (I)  (Discs)   •   CASTLE RECORDS, INC. (II)  (Discs)   •   CAVALCADE MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CAVALIER RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CECILLE MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CELPS RECORD (& SUPPLY) COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CELTIC RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CENTRAL NEBRASKA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   CHAMPION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHAMPION RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CHANCE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHANGER PUBLICATIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHARLES E. WASHBURN COMPANY / COAST RECORD (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY / RODEO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CHARM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHARLES ECKARD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHARTER RECORDS  (Discs)  •   CHEROKEE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO CENTRAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CHICAGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO RECORDING STUDIOS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CHICAGO TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CHIEF RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CINCINNATI RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CIRCLE RECORDS / CIRCLE SOUND, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLARK PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLARION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLARION RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLASSIC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLAUDE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CLEF RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CLIPPER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CLOVER RECORDS COMPANY, LTD.  (Discs)   •   CLUB RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CO-ART RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COBRA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COLEMAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COLLECTORS ITEMS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COLORADO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY / COLORADO AND UTAH PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   COLUMBIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY AND RELATED COMPANIES: American Graphophone Company; Columbia Graphophone Company; Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company; Columbia Phonograph Company, Inc.; Columbia Phonograph Company, General  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   COLUMBIA RECORDING CORPORATION / COLUMBIA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COMAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COMET, INC.  (Discs)   •   COMMODORE MUSIC SHOP / COMMODORE RECORD CO., INC.  (Discs)   •   COMPO COMPANY, LTD. / H. S. BERLINER LABORATORIES (New York branch)  (Discs)   •   COMMAND RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COMMERCIAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COMPASS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CONCERT HALL SOCIETY, INC.  (Discs)   •   CONCERT PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Cylinders)   •   CONSOLIDATED PHONOGRAPH COMPANIES, LTD. / CONSOLIDATED PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   CONSOLIDATED RECORD(ING) CORPORATION / CONSOLIDATED RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   CONTINENTAL PHONOGRAPH AND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CONTINENTAL RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   COOK LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   CORMAC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CORONET RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   COSMOPOLITAN RECORDS, INC. / COSMO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COURTNEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COVA RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   COVERED WAGON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   COWBOY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   COZY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CRITERION LABORATORIES / CRITERION RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   CROWN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   CRYSTAL RECORDING STUDIO  (Discs)   •   CRYSTAL TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   CRYSTALETTE RECORDS OF CALIFORNIA / CRYSTALETTE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   CUDAHY RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)

D. E. BOSWELL & COMPANY (Cylinders) •   DAMON RECORDING STUDIOS, INC. / DAMON TRANSCRIPTION LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   DANA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DANCELAND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DAVIS, JOE: Beacon Record Company / Celebrity Records / Joe Davis Record Company / Davis Record Corporation / Jay-Dee Records  (Discs)   •   DAY DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DC RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DE LUXE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   DECCA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   DELMAC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DELRAY RECORDING COMPANY / PARADISE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DELVAR RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DERBY RECORDS CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DIAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DIAMOND RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   DIAMOND RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DISCOVERY RECORDS, INC. / DISCOVERY RECORDS OF NEW YORK, INC.  (Discs)   •   DOLPHIN, JOHN: Dolphin’s of Hollywood / Recorded in Hollywood  (Discs)  •   DOME RECORDS (INC.)  (Discs)   •   DOMESTIC TALKING MACHINE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOMINO PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOMINO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DONETT HIT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DOWN BEAT RECORDING COMPANY / SWING BEAT RECORDS / SWING TIME RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOWN HOME CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   DOWN HOME RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DOWN RIVER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DUDLEY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   DUKE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DUPLEX PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   DURIUM PRODUCTS CORPORATION / DURIUM PRODUCTS, INC.  (Discs)

E. A. EILY RECORD COMPANY (Discs) •   E. O’BYRNE De WITT & SON(S) / JAMES O’BYRNE DeWITT, INC.  (Discs)   •   E. T. HERZOG RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   E. T. PAULL MUSIC COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   EAGLE RECORD COMPANY / ABC-EAGLE RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   EBONY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ECHO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ECHO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EDISON, THOMAS A.: Edison Phonograph Works; National Phonograph Company; North American Phonograph Company; Thomas A. Edison, Inc.  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   EDISON PHONOGRAPH COMPANY OF OHIO  (Cylinders)   •   EKKO RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ELECTRIC RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   ELECTRO-VOX RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   EMANON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMBASSY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMERALD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   EMERSON PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)  •   EMERSON RECORDING LABORATORIES, INC.  (Discs)   •   EMPEY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE BROADCASTING SYSTEM  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE RECORD COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   EMPIRE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   ENCORE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ENGLEWOOD RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ENTERPRISE RECORDS (INC.)  (Discs)   •   ESLAVA RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ESQUIRE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   ETNA RECORDING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   EVERSTATE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EVERYBODYS RECORD, INC.  (Discs)   •   EXCELSIOR PHONOGRAPH COMPANY / EXCELSIOR & MUSICAL PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   EXCELSIOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EXCLUSIVE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   EXNER RECORD COMPANY / F. B. EXNER  (Discs)

F AND P RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   FAMOUS SINGERS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   FANFARE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FARGO RECORDS  (Discs)  •   FAVORITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FBC DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FEDERAL RECORD CORPORATION  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   FINE ARTS RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FINE RECORDING COMPANY / FINE RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   FLETCHER RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   FLINT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   FLORA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FLORIDA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   FLORIDA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FM RECORDS / FM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FOLKRAFT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FOLKWAYS RECORDS & SERVICE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   FORTUNE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   49th STATE HAWAII RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRANK’S FOLK TUNE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   FRAN-TONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   FREEDOM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRANWIL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   FRIENDS OF RECORDED MUSIC, THE  (Discs)   •   FRONTIER RECORDS  (Discs)

GAELIC (PHONOGRAPH) RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   GALA RECORD COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GAMUT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GEE BEE RECORDS   •   GEDDINS, ROBERT L. (BOB): Big Town Recordings; Down Town Recording, Inc.; Cava-Tone Recording  (Discs)   •   GEM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GENE AUSTIN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GENERAL PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GENNETT RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   GEORGIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   G.I. RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GILT-EDGE RECORD COMPANY / 4 STAR RECORD COMPANY, INC  (Discs)   •   GLOBE DISTRIBUTORS  (Discs)   •   GLOBE PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   GLOBE RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   GLOBE RECORD COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   GLO TONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GOLD MEDAL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOLD-RAIN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLD SEAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLD TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GOLDBAND RECORD COMPANY / GOLDBAND RECORDING STUDIO  (Discs)   •   GOLDEN RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOOD TIME JAZZ  (Discs)   •   GOTHAM RECORD COMPANY / GOODY RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   GRAMOPHONE SHOP, THE  (Discs)   •   GRAND CENTRAL MUSIC COMPANY / REGO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GRAND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GREATER NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   GREEK RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   GREEN RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   GREGOL ENTERPRISES  (Discs)   •   GREGORY RECORD COMPANY / BOBBY GREGORY RECORDS / CATHY-BOBBY GREGORY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   GREY GULL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   GRIMES MUSIC PUBLISHERS / CLEF PUBLICATIONS  (Discs)   •   GUILD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   GOLD STAR RECORDS   •   GULF RECORD COMPANY, INC.

H & M LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   HAMP-TONE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HANDY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HAPPINESS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARDING, ROGER  (Cylinders)   •   HARDMAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HARGAIL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARMONIA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   HARMONY RECORD COMPANY   •   HARMONY RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   HARMONY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HARMS, KAISER & HAGEN  (Cylinders)   •   HARRIS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HARRY LIM RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   HART-VAN RECORD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HAVEN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HAWTHORNE & SHEBLE [MANUFACTURING] COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   HEADLINE RECORD CORPORATION OF NEW YORK  (Discs)   •   HEART RECORDS, INC.  (Disc)   •   HIGH TIME RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HI-LITE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)  •   HIT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLIDAY RECORDS (OF HOLLYWOOD)  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD ENTERPRISES, INC.  •   HOLLYWOOD INTERNATIONAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD (PHONOGRAPH) RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOLLYWOOD STAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HOLMES ROYAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOT RECORD SOCIETY / H. R. S. RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   HOT ROD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HOUSTON RECORDS  (Discs)  •   HOWARD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   HUB RECORDS  (Discs)   •   HUCKSTERS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   HUNTING, RUSSELL  (Cylinders)   •   HY-TONE RECORDING COMPANY / HY-TONE MANUFACTURING & DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)

IDEAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   IDESSA MALONE DISTRIBUTORS / IDESSA MALONE ENTERPRISES / STAFF RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORD COMPANY (I)  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORD COMPANY, INC. (II)  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   IMPERIAL TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IMPRESARIO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   INDESTRUCTIBLE PHONOGRAPHIC RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   INDEPENDENT RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   INDIGO RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL PHONOGRAPH AND RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   INTERNATIONAL RECORDS AGENCY  (Discs)   •   IOWA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   ISLAND MUSIC AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ISRAEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   IVORY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

J. B. ALLISON RECORDING LABORATORIES • J. O. B. RECORDS  (Discs)   •   J. W. MYERS STANDARD PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   JADE RECORD COMPANY   •   JAMBOREE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   JAMES D. VAUGHAN, PUBLISHER  (Discs)   •   JAZZ DISC  (Discs)   •   JAZZ INFORMATION RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JAZZ LTD.  (Discs)   •   JAZZ MAN RECORD SHOP  (Discs)   •   JAZZOLOGY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JEWEL RECORD COMPANY (I)  •   JEWEL RECORD COMPANY (II)  (Discs)   •   JOCO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   JOHN CURRIE ENTERPRISES  (Discs)   •   JONES (RECORDING) LABORATORIES / JONES RESEARCH SOUND PRODUCTS  (Discs)   •   JUBILEE RECORDS COMPANY, INC. / JAY-GEE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   JUKE BOX RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   JUMP RECORDS  (Discs)

KANSAS CITY TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KANSAS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KAPPA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   KARL ZOMAR LIBRARY, THE / COLUMBINE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   KEEN-O-PHONE COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)  •   KEM RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   KENTUCKY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   KEYNOTE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   KHOURY’S RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   KING JAZZ, INC.  (Discs)   •   KING RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   KISMET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

LA BONITA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LA MARR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LABORATOR ED. JEDLICKA  (Cylinders)   •   LABORATORY ASSOCIATION, THE (Discs)   •   LAMB’S RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   LAMBERT COMPANY, THE  (Cylinders)   •   LAMPLIGHTER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LARK RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LASSO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LATIN AMERICAN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LAURENT RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   LEE SALES COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   LEDA RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LEEDS & CATLIN COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   LEI RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   LEO KUPANA’I STUDIO  (Discs)   •   LESLIE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY MUSIC SHOP(S)  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   LIBERTY RECORD COMPANY [I – Hollywood] / BLAZON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY RECORD COMPANY [II – New York]  (Discs)   •   LIBERTY RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LIBRARY OF CONGRESS  (Discs)   •   LIFE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LIFE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINCOLN, BENJAMIN  (Discs)   •   LINCOLN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LINDEN RECORDINGS / LINDEN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   LINDWOOD RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LITTLE WONDER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LISSEN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   LLOYD’S NOVELTY AND CURIO SHOP  (Discs)   •   LONDON GRAMOPHONE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   LONE STAR MUSIC PUBLISHERS   •   LONE STAR PUBLISHING AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LOUISIANA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, LTD.  (Cylinders)   •   LUCKY 7 RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   LYRAPHONE COMPANY OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   LYRIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)

M & S DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   M & S ELECTRIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MACY’S RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MacGREGOR & SOLLIE, INC. / MacGREGOR & INGRAM RECORDING LABORATORIES / MacGREGOR TRANSCRIPTIONS STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   MAESTRO MUSIC COMPANY / MAESTRO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MACKSOUD, A. J.  (Discs)   •   MAGNOLIA RECORDS COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAIN STEM MUSIC SHOP  (Discs)   •   MAIN STREET RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MAJESTIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC. / MAJESTIC RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MAJESTIC RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAJOR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MALOOF PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MANHATTAN MUSIC CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MANHATTAN RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   MANOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MAR-KEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARSH LABORATORIES, INC.  (Discs)   •   MARSHALL, CHARLES  (Cylinders)   •   MARSHALL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARVEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MARVEL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MARY HOWARD RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   MASTER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MASTER RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MASTERTONE RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MAUNAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MAYFAIR RECORD & RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MELFORD RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELLO-STRAIN RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   MELLOW MUSIC SHOP / MELLOW RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MEL-MAR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELMORE, INC.  (Discs)   •   MELODISC RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELODY LANE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MELODY MODERNE, INC. / MEMO RECORDS CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MELODY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MELODY TRAIL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELROSE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MELTZER, SAM  (Discs)   •   MEMPHIS RECORDING SERVICE  (Discs)   •   MERCURY RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   MERIT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MERO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   METROPOLITAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   METROPOLITAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   METROTONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   M-G-M RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MICHIGAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MIDA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MIDGET MUSIC, INC. / MIDGET MUSIC PRODUCTIONS / FIDELITY RECORDS [I]  (Discs)   •   MILLER PUBLICATIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MINNESOTA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MIRACLE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MIRROR RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   MISSOURI PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   MODERN MUSIC RECORDS / MODERN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MONARCH RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MONROE, JOHN  (Cylinders)   •   MONTANA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   MORRISON MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MOTIF RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MOVIETONE MUSIC CORPORATION   •   MURRAY SINGER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSIC FOR SOCIETY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   MUSIC, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSIC-MART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC ON PARADE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUSIC YOU ENJOY, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUSICAL PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   MUSICRAFT CORPORATION / MUSICRAFT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   MUTUAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   MUZAK, INC. / ASSOCIATED MUSIC PUBLISHERS RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)

NATIONAL FILM AND RECORDING COMPANY / RICHARD BRADLEY AND ASSOCIATES  (Discs)   •   NATIONAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NATIONAL RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   NATION’S FORUM  (Discs)   •   NATURAL HIT RECORD COMPANY, A  (Discs)   •   NEBRASKA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW ENGLAND PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW JAZZ RECORD COMPANY / PRESTIGE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   NEW JERSEY PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW MUSIC QUARTERLY RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW YORK PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   NEW YORK RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   NEWARK RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   NORCROSS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   NORDSKOG PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   NORTH AMERICAN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   NUMELODY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   NUTMEG RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)

OHIO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   OHIO TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OKEH PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   OKLAHOMA TORNADO RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OLD DOMINION PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   OLYMPIC DISC RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   OPERA RECORD COMPANY / OPERA RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OPERA RECORDS  (Discs)   •   OPERAPHONE COMPANY / OPERAPHONE MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   ORA NELLE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ORPHEUM RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ORPHEUS RECORD AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   OTTO HEINEMAN PHONOGRAPH SUPPLY COMPANY, INC. (Discs)

PACE PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION / BLACK SWAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACEMAKER RECORD AND TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC COAST RECORD CORPORATION, LTD.  (Discs)   •   PACIFIC PHONOGRAPH AGENCY / PACIFIC PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   PAGE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PALDA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PAN-AMERICAN PUBLICATIONS / PAN-AM TRANSCRIPTIONS  (Discs)   •   PAN-AMERICAN RECORD COMPANY / BIRWELL CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PANHELLENIC / PANHELLENION PHONOGRAPH RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   PARAGON RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PARAMOUNT RECORD MANUFACTURING AND RECORDING COMPANY   •   PARAMOUNT RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PARAMOUNT RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PARADE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PARKWAY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PAROQUETTE RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   PATHÉ FRÈRES PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PATHÉ PHONOGRAPH & RADIO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PEACOCK RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PEAK RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PEARL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PEARSON’S PRODUCTIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PENGUIN RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PEOPLE’S ARTISTS, INC.  (Discs)   •   PEOPLE’S SONGS  (Discs)  •   PHILO RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   PHONO RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PHONOGRAPH RECORD AND SUPPLY COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   PHONOGRAPH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PHOTO & SOUND, INC.  (Discs)   •   PHOTOTONE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PILOT RADIO COMPANY / CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PIX RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PLANET RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PLEASANT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   POLONIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   POLORON RECORDS  (Discs)   •   POLYPHONE COMPANY, THE / TALKING MACHINE COMPANY, THE  (Cylinders)   •   PREMIER RADIO ENTERPRISES, INC. / PREMIER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PREMIER RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PREMIUM RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   PRESIDENT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PREVIEW RECORDS  (Discs)   •   PRODUCERS RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)  •   PROCESS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   PUBLIC RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)

Q.R.S COMPANY  (Discs)   •   QUAKER MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   QUALITY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   QUINN RECORDING COMPANY / GOLD STAR RECORDS RECORDS  (Discs)

RABSON’S MUSIC SHOP  (Discs)   •   RADIO CORPORATION OF AMERICA — RCA VICTOR DIVISION  (Discs)   •   RADIO RECORDERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RADIO-RUNDFUNK CORPORATION / EUROPA IMPORT COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RADIO TRANSCRIPTION COMPANY OF AMERICA, LTD.  (Discs)   •   RAINBOW RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RAINBOW RECORDS, INC. / RAINBOW RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   RAVEN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RAYMOR–McCOLLISTER MUSIC / RAYMOR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   REC-ART RECORDINGS / REC-ART STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RECORD MERCHANDISING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RECORD SYNDICATE TRUST  (Discs)   •   RED BARN RECORDING COMPANY   •   RED BIRD RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   REED & DAWSON / REED, DAWSON & COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   REEVES SOUND STUDIOS / REEVES SOUNDCRAFT CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REGAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REGENT RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REGIS RECORD COMPANY / REGIS RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)  •   RELAX RECORDS  (Discs)  •   REMINGTON RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RELAX RECORDS  (Discs)   •   REX TALKING MACHINE CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   REYNARD, JAMES KENT  (Discs)   •   RHAPSODY RECORDS [I]  (Discs)   •   RHAPSODY RECORDS [II]  (Discs)   •   RHUMBOOGIE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RHYTHM RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)  •   RHYTHM RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   RICH PUBLICATIONS / RICH-ART ENTERPRISES, INC. / RICH-ART RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RICH RECORDINGS  (Discs)  •   RICH-R’-TONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RICHTONE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RKO PATHE STUDIOS Discs)   •   RODEHEAVER RECORD COMPANY / RODEHEAVER RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   ROBIN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RODEO RECORDS  (Discs)   •   RONDO RECORDS / RONDO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROOST RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROY MILTON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   ROY RECORDS  (Discs)  •   ROYAL RECORD COMPANY / SEPIA RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   ROYCROFTERS, THE  (Discs)   •   ’R-TIST RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   RUMPUS RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

S & D RECORDS  (Discs)  •   S & G RECORDS  (Discs)   •   S. B. W. RECORDING COMPANY / CARL SOBIE PUBLISHING  (Discs)   •   SACRED RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SAN ANTONIO PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   SAN ANTONIO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SAPPHIRE RECORD & TALKING MACHINE COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SAPPHIRE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SARAFIAN SOHAG / SOKHAG RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SARCO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SAUVENAIR RECORDS COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SAVOY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   SCANDINAVIAN MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SCANDINAVIAN MUSIC HOUSE  (Discs)   •   SCHIRMER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SCHRIBER AND GUSTAFSON  (Discs)  •   SCOOP RECORD COMPANY [I]  (Discs)   •   SCOOP RECORD COMPANY [II]  (Discs)   •   SCOOP RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SCOTT RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SCRANTON BUTTON COMPANY / SCRANTON RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SEARS, ROEBUCK & COMPANY – SILVERTONE RECORD CLUB  (Discs)   •   SECURITY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SEECO RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SELECTIVE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SENSATION RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SELLERS COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SERENADE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SESSION RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SEVA RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SEYMOUR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SHARP RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SIEMON HARD RUBBER COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SIGNATURE RECORD COMPANY / SIGNATURE RECORDING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SILVER SPUR RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SILVER STAR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SILVER STAR RECORDING COMPANY   •   SITTIN’ IN WITH RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SLATE ENTERPRISES, INC.  (Discs)   •   SOLO ART RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   SONART RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SONGCRAFT, INC.  (Discs)  •   SONORA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC. / SONORA PHONOGRAPH CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SONORA RADIO AND TELEVISION CORPORATION / SONORA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SONOROUS MUSIC COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SORORITY FRATERNITY RECORDS AND PUBLICATIONS / MAYHAMS AND CO-ED RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SOUTH DAKOTA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   SPANISH MUSIC CENTER / CODA RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SPECIALTY RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SPIKES BROTHERS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SPIN RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPIRE RECORDS COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPIRE RECORDS, LTD.  (Discs)   •   SPIRO RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   SPOKANE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)  •   SPOTLIGHT RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SPOTLITE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SQUARE DEAL RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STANCHEL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STANDARD PHONO / PHONOGRAPH COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   STAN-LEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   STANLEY RECORDING COMPANY OF AMERICA, INC.  (Discs)   •   STAPLETON INDUSTRIES  (Discs)   •   STARR PIANO COMPANY – GENNETT RECORDS DIVISION  (Discs)   •   STATE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY OF ILLINOIS  (Cylinders)   •   STEINER, JOHN  (Discs)   •   STERLING RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   STINSON RECORDS / STINSON TRADING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   STRAND RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   STRONG RECORD COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SULLIVAN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SULTAN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SUNBEAM RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   SUNRISE RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)  •   SUNSET RECORD COMPANY  •   SUNSET RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   SUNSHINE PRODUCTIONS AND RECORDS  (Discs)   •   SUPER DISCS  (Discs)   •   SUPREME RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   SWAN RECORDING COMPANY, INC.  (Discs)   •   SWING RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

TALENT RECORDS / STAR TALENT RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TALKING PHOTO CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   TALK-O-PHONE COMPANY, THE  (Discs)   •   TANNER MANUFACTURING AND DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TECH-ART RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   TECHNICORD RECORDS  (Discs)   •  TELE-RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   TEMPO RECORD COMPANY OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   TEMPO-TONE RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •    TENNESSEE PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  •   TENNESSEE RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TEXAS PHONOGRAPH COMPANY   •   TEXSTAR RECORDS  (Discs)    •   THOMAS W. HATCH, PUBLISHER  (Discs)   •   3 MINUTE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TIMELY RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TITAN PRODUCTION COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TIME ABROAD, LTD.   •   TOKEN RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TOP RECORD COMPANY / TOP RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   TOPS MUSIC ENTERPRISES / TOPS RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TOWER RECORDS  (Discs)   •   TRILON RECORD MANUFACTURING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   TRI-COLOR RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TRIUMPH RECORDS  (Discs)  •   TROPHY RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   TRU TONE PRODUCTIONS, INC. / TRU TONE RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)

UNION OF IRISH INDUSTRIES, INC.  (Discs)  •   UNIQUE MUSIC PUBLISHERS AND RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   U. S. PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNITED ARTIST RECORDS  (Discs)   •   UNITED BROADCASTING COMPANY / MASTER RECORD COMPANY / SWING-MASTER RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNITED HEBREW DISK & CYLINDER COMPANY / UNITED HEBREW RECORD COMPANY  (Cylinders and Discs)   •   UNITED MASTERS, INC.  (Discs)   •   UNITED SOUND STUDIOS / UNITED SOUND SYSTEMS  (Discs)   •   UNITED STATES PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNITED STATES RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNITED STATES RECORD MANUFACTURING CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   UNIVERSAL RECORDING LABORATORIES / UNIVERSAL RECORDING CORPORATION / UNIVERSAL RECORDS  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL RECORDING STUDIOS / UNIVERSAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   UNIVERSAL TALKING MACHINE (MANUFACTURING) COMPANY  (Discs)   •   UPTOWN RECORDS  (Discs)   •   URAB RECORDING STUDIO (UNITED RECORDING ARTISTS BUREAU)  (Discs)   •   URBAN RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

VAN-ES RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VARGO, INC. / VARGO RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VARIETY RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VELVET TONE RECORD COMPANY   •   VERNE RECORDING CORPORATION OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   VICTOR AND VICTOR PREDECESSOR COMPANIES: Johnson Sound Recording Company / Consolidated Talking Machine Company / Victor Talking Machine Company  (Discs)   •   VITACOUSTIC RECORD COMPANY / VITACOUSTIC RECORDS, INC  (Discs)   •   VOGUE RECORDINGS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VON BATTLE RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   VOX CORPORATION OF AMERICA  (Discs)   •   VOX PRODUCTIONS, INC.  (Discs)   •   VULCAN RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)

WALCUTT, MILLER & COMPANY / WALCUTT & LEEDS / THE WALCUTT & LEEDS, LTD.  (Cylinders)   •   WALLIS ORIGINAL RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WARNER RECORD COMPANY / WARNER RECORDING LABORATORIES / WABINE RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WEST COAST PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WEST COAST RECORDINGS  (Discs)   •   WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WESTERN RECORDS / WESTERN RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WESTERN RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WESTERNAIRE RECORDS / CONSTELLATION RECORD AND DISTRIBUTING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WHEELING RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WILLIAMS & RANKIN  (Cylinders)   •   WILLIAMS, J. MAYO: Southern Record Corporation / Harlem Records, Inc. / “Ink,” Inc. / Mayo Music / Ebony Records)  (Discs)   •   WHITE CHURCH RECORDING COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WILLOW WALK INDUSTRIES  (Discs)  •   WINSETT RECORDING LABORATORY  (Discs)   •   WINSTON HOLMES MUSIC COMPANY  (Discs)   •   WISCONSIN PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)   •   WOR ELECTRICAL RECORDING AND TRANSCRIPTION SERVICES / WOR RECORDING STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WORLD BROADCASTING SYSTEM, INC. / WORLD TRANSCRIPTION STUDIOS  (Discs)   •   WORLD RECORDS, INC.  (Discs)   •   WORLD’S GREATEST MUSIC  (Discs)   •   WRIGHT RECORD CORPORATION  (Discs)   •   WRIGHTMAN, NEALE: Neale Wrightman Publishers / Wrightman Music, Inc. / Wrightman Record Company / Wrimus Company  (Discs)   •   WYOMING PHONOGRAPH COMPANY  (Cylinders)

YADDO  (Discs)  •   YERKES RECORDING LABORATORIES  (Discs)   •   YOUR RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)  •   ZARVAH ART RECORD COMPANY  (Discs)

NEW • The “World’s Greatest Operas” Discography (RCA Victor Series) by John Bolig

Our thanks to John Bolig for the first fully detailed discography of the RCA-produced “World’s Greatest Operas” records. Data are from original RCA documentation at the Sony archives in New York. All issues were anonymous, but as you’ll see, some first-rate talent was employed.

John’s complete listing of RCA’s “World’s Greatest Music” records (a substantially revised and expanded version of our very basic  listing that was posted a few weeks ago) has also been posted.

Note that this listing is only for the original RCA-produced series. Other producers took over the “World’s Greatest…” series after the RCA Victor connection was severed in 1940.

.

.

NEW • The “World’s Greatest Music” Discography (RCA Victor Series) – Revised & Expanded by John Bolig

Our thanks to Victor expert John Bolig for revising and greatly expanding the very basic “World’s Greatest Music” listing that we posted a few weeks ago. The data are from RCA’s original documentation at the Sony archives in New York. A complete listing of RCA’s “World’s Greatest Operas” series is also being posted later today.

(By the way, several of John’s landmark Victor Discography titles have sold out recently. The remaining volumes are still available on the Mainspring Press website, but supplies are very limited. The listing below will give you a good idea of the high-quality data and attention to detail you’ll find in all of John’s books.)

Note that this listing is only for the original RCA-produced series of 1938-1940. Other producers took over the series after the RCA Victor connection was severed, and later pressings are not RCA products.
.

Victor on the Road: Ralph Peer Goes to El Paso (Summer 1929)

Press coverage of Ralph Peer’s summer 1929 visit to El Paso, Texas, gives a taste of the excitement that was generated when  Victor and other large East Coast record companies came to far-flung locations seeking talent. Three local El Paso artists had already been chosen to record by the end of June, in advance of the Victor team’s arrival, and auditions continued through the second week of July:

.

El Paso Herald (June 28, 1929)

.

Among those whose recordings were issued were M. S. Dillehay, the Rodeo Trio (D. A. Champaigne, Kenneth Deshazo, and Phil Smith), and the Maxwell family string band from New Mexico, which someone at Victor named the “White Mountain Orchestra.” But the artist who got the most attention from the local press was another member of the Maxwell family, Billie Maxwell Warner, whose records were released under her maiden name:

.

El Paso Herald (July 2, 1929)

.

The local reporters poked a little fun at a couple of unnamed cowboys who came to audition:
.

El Paso Herald (July 11, 1929)

.

In the end, four of Billie Maxwell’ songs were released in the  Victor V-40000 country-music series. True to form, Peer had her listed as the “arranger” of these numbers, enabling him to file for copyright on what were actually public-domain folk tunes. Here’s her “Haunted Hunter,” which was also issued in Canada on the Aurora label. Both editions are rare:

.

BILLIE MAXWELL, “THE COWGIRL SINGER” (vocal and guitar):
Haunted Hunter

El Paso, TX: July 11, 1929 — Released May 16, 1930
Victor V-40241 (mx. BVE 55234 – 1)
From a tape dubbing, courtesy of the late Gilbert Louey

.

El Paso Evening Post (Decemebr 5, 1929)

From the “Gennett Record Gazette” – Joie Lichter, Bob Tamm, and the Questionable “Gene Bailey” (1924)

The Gennett Record Gazette was a nifty promo publication filled with photos, release lists, facts, and “alternative facts.” Here are a couple of excepts from Vol. I, No. 4 (April 1924) — one correcting a likely error in Johnson & Shirley’s American Dance Bands on Records and Film, and the other opening a discographical can of worms.

Joie Lichter’s and Bob Tamm’s Milwaukee orchestras visited Gennett’s Richmond, Indiana, studio on March 4, 1924 — Lichter recording five sides, with Tamm squeezing in a single title midway through the session, according to the Gennett ledgers. (“Tamm” or “Tamms”? It appears both ways in press reports and ads of the period, but “Tamm” is favored by a good margin.)

For god-only-knows what reason (since its compilers give none), ADBRF lists the Tamm side as a pseudonymous Lichter recording, even though the ledger, and the detailed information reported below, make that seem unlikely. For what it’s worth, Brian Rust credited the Tamm side to Tamm in his earlier  American Dance Band Discography, from which ADBRF was largely taken. If anyone can offer any credible reason for the change in ADBRF (credible excluding things like “so-and-so is sure he hears such-and-such” or “Joe Blow remembers that somebody said…”), please let us know, and of course be sure to cite the source. If it checks out, we’ll be happy to post it.

.

.

Our next excerpt involves the ubiquitous Bailey’s Lucky Seven. For years it’s been taken for granted that this was a Sam Lanin group, and aural evidence does strongly suggest that was the case on many sides. Many others, however, are more generic-sounding. Unfortunately, the Gennett ledgers offer no clues in either case. (Note that the Bailey’s personnel listings in the various Rust and Johnson & Shirley discographies are all conjectural, even if the authors don’t make that clear. None of it is from file data or other primary-source documentation.)

But here we have one “Gene Bailey, of Bailey’s Lucky Seven” running a question-and-answer column in the Gennett Record Gazette. Not surprisingly, “Bailey” gave no answer whatsoever to the fan’s question concerning the Lucky Seven’s personnel, or where the band was performing, other than a vague reference later in the column to one “Saxophone Joe.”

.

.

So, was there a real Gene Bailey involved with these recordings, and if so, in what capacity? Or was this just yet another case of the Gennett folks having fun with pseudonyms? We favor the latter, since we’ve found no trace of a Gene Bailey having been  active on the New York-area musical scene, either as a musician or a manager, at the time. (These were all New York recordings.  The cartoon above, by the way, is based on a well-known 1923 photo taken in the New York studio, which was configured differently than the Indiana facility).

There’s an old anecdote about Gennett borrowing the names of employees or other locals for its artist pseudonyms. And a Gene Bailey does turns up in the social notices of several eastern Indiana newspapers at the time, although with no mention of any musical connection. But just to muck things up a bit, Gennett once issued a record credited to “Jene Bailey’s Orchestra,” claiming (in the ledger as well as in their ads) that Mr. Bailey personally conducted the side:

.

.

Of course, much of Gennett’s promotional material should be taken with the proverbial grain of salt. This was, after all, a  company whose “Colored Records” catalog included a photo of an unknown black band that was captioned “Ladd’s Black Aces” — a confirmed pseudonym on Gennett for the all-white Original Memphis Five.

_____

While we’re on subject, here’s a terrific book that all Gennett fans should own, by Charlie Dahan and Linda Gennett Irmscher (Arcadia Publishing). It’s available on Amazon.com, and a real  bargain at just $21.99 — crammed with rare photos and little-known facts, and covering a much broader scope than the earlier Kennedy tome. Highly recommended!
.


(That’s Art Landry’s Call of the North Orchestra on the cover. At the top, you can see the heavy drapes that contributed to the Indiana studio’s notoriously muddy acoustics.)

.

2017 ARSC Award for “Race Records and the American Recording Industry”

Now back in stock

We’re pleased to report that Race Records and the American Recording Industry 1919-1945 had been awarded the Association for Recorded Sound Collections‘ 2017 Certificate of Merit in Recorded Blues, Gospel, Soul, or R&B Research.

Due to unexpectedly high demand, we’ve run out of copies several times recently but now have a fresh supply in stock and ready for immediate delivery. The book is available exclusively from Mainspring Press.

.

The Phonograph – Lamp Combinations (1920s)

The Phonolamp was one of the early hybrids. The Electric Phonograph Corporation (New York) filed its trademark application on June 28, 1918, claiming use of the Phonolamp since “approximately” April 1, 1917. Several models were produced, including one mounted on a pole. Phonolamp also briefly marketed its own record label in 1921, mainly using masters from Grey Gull. The example above  was originally issued on Grey Gull L-1045 (mx. 11117).

.

Modernola was another early combo producer. It filed its first trademark application on November 8, 1918, claiming use of the brand since August 5, 1918 (a later filing claimed July 1918 for first use). Unlike most hybrids, which used electric motors, this model used the traditional spring motor.

.

One of the gaudiest phono-lamp combinations, Lampagraph advertised heavily during 1920–1921, but information on its manufacturer is lacking.

.

Another obscure combination, the Fairy Phonograph Lamp also advertised during 1920–1921.

__________

If you enjoyed these ads, be sure to check out Vintage Phonograph Advertisements 1895–1925, available exclusively from Mainspring Press while supplies last:

.

.

Len Spencer Arrested (1897)

Russell Hunting wasn’t the only recording-industry pioneer to be arrested in the 1890s. In March 1897, Len Spencer and two of the Emerson brothers were taken into custody in Newark, New Jersey, charged with stealing cylinders from the United States Phonograph Company.

.

Len Spencer’s Phonoscope biography, 1898

.

The trouble began in early 1897, after Spencer and the Emersons (Victor H., George E., and Clyde D.) resigned from United States Phonograph to work for the American Graphophone Company (Columbia).

According to the charges, Spencer, George Emerson, and Clyde Emerson took a substantial number of records from U.S. Phonograph, which they allegedly sold to a “rival concern.” The company was not identified in the press reports, but quite likely it was Columbia, which had a history of copying other companies’ cylinders and marketing them as their own (see, for example, American Graphophone Co. v. United States Phonograph Co., et al., U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey, In Equity No. 4005, an 1898 case in which Calvin Child confirmed the practice).

Victor Emerson was not charged. Details of the arrest were reported by the New York Sun on March 9, 1897:

.

.

But unlike Hunting, who went to jail for three months for making and peddling “obscene” records, Spencer and the two Emersons  escaped unscathed. On March 25, 1897, the prosecutor declared that the state had no case, and defendants were discharged.

A few weeks later, Spencer formally announced his employment by Columbia:

 

.

Spencer didn’t remain exclusive to Columbia for long, and by the early 1900s he had reclaimed his former status as one of the most prolific studio free-lancers. Victor Emerson went on to serve long and well as Columbia’s chief recording engineer before resigning in 1914 to launch his own label.

.

Harry Gennett, Jr., and the Gennett Sound Effects Records (1928 – 1956)

Harry Gennett, Jr., and the Gennett Sound Effects Records
(1928 – 1956)
By Allan Sutton

 

In November 1956, Harry Gennett Jr. (the son of Gennett Records president Harry Sr.) recalled his involvement with the Gennett Sound Effects records for a reporter from the Richmond, Indiana Palladium-Item. Much of the following information came from his recollections, supplemented by data from the Gennett ledger sheets.

______________

 

 

Gennett Record’s sound-effects program was launched in 1928 as a client service for the Hannaphone Company, [1] a Philadelphia-based theater-management company. On November 21, it was announced that Hannaphone had contracted with Gennett to produce sound-effects records for use with motion pictures.

Harry Gennett apparently already had such a venture in mind at the time of the Hannaphone announcement. Sound-effects recording began to appear regularly in the Gennett ledgers beginning on October 16, 1928, [2] several of which were played for a gathering of the Richmond Foreman’s Club at which Gennett announced the deal. [3]

Demand for sound-effects recordings quickly mushroomed as producers of sound films began dubbing pre-recorded sound effects into their soundtracks. Gennett’s offerings included “Hog Calling Contest,” “Poultry—Roosters and Geese Predominant,” “American Can Factory,” “Electric Washing Machine—Not Much Suds,” “Single Man Walking Through Sand and Gravel,” “News Room—Confusion of Sounds,” “Winds Howling–Continuous,”  “Auto Crashes with Screams,” “Auto Race with Crashes,” and the ominous “Railroad Comes Through the Middle of the House.” [4]

.

Gennett’s original mobile recording laboratory. The truck was outfitted with assistance from William C. Kaeuper, woodworking supervisor of the Richmond, Indiana, plant.

.

The sound-effects operation was quickly handed off to Harry Gennett’s son, Harry Jr., along with Richmond plant manager Robert Conner. The corner of Eighth and Main in Richmond was a favored spot for early recording sessions, providing numerous recordings of street and railroad sounds, factory whistles, and the occasional car wreck.

But Gennett and Conner also traveled widely in their pursuit of sound. In 1929, they and William C. Kaeuper (the plant’s woodworking supervisor) equipped a large panel truck with what Harry Jr. recalled as “a ton” of recording equipment [5]  and began taking to the road — at first, just scouting around the Richmond area, but later (after recording equipment became sufficiently compact to transport in a car) traveling across the country. They recorded the mission bells in Santa Barbara, California, [6] Hopi Indian dances in New Mexico (with the recording equipment hidden in nearby vegetation), [7] and braying mules in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

 

In later years, as recording equipment became more portable, Gennett and Conner employed a car as their mobile unit and traveled widely. Here, it’s parked in front of the Santa Barbara Mission in California.

.

Among the films employing Gennett sound effects was Frank Buck’s “Bring ‘Em Back Alive,” which used animal noises that Harry Jr. recorded at the Cincinnati Zoo. Gennett recalled that he was allowed to stay overnight on the zoo grounds but was ordered to remain in his car to avoid being shot by the zoo’s guards. He was also warned that his cables could spook the giraffes, who might mistake them for snakes.

Some recordings, like the boxing-match, railroad, and airplane-noise sides, were straightforward live captures, unstaged and untinkered-with. But in many other cases, Harry Jr.’s creativity and technical expertise came into play. The “Alley Cat” record employed a human imitator, but “Braying Mule” used the real thing, with a bit of coaxing. Gennett recalled having a boy lead one mule away from the herd, causing “a loud voice of disapproval” from the others. Studio personnel were recruited to re-create a medieval battle and other chaotic scenes, and Gennett sometimes tested new noise-makers in the main factory, much to the displeasure of some employees.

Thunder effects were obtained by recording shotgun blasts, then dubbing the results at a slower speed, which Gennett claimed gave better results than the real thing. To create the gear-shifting effect in “Automobile Continuously Running” (reportedly a top seller), Gennett simply altered the recording speed while the car remained stationery. Gennett also became a master of overdubbing. One of his most popular efforts combined a long tire screech and collision noises (the latter recorded live on a Richmond street) with the existing “Automobile Continuously Running” recording to create a sensational car-crash record. [8]

.

The original 1928 sound-effects label (upper left); a sound-effects recording on the Gennett Electrical Transcription label, marketed for radio use (upper right); an Electrical Transcription test pressing (lower left); and the later-1930s version of the sound-effects label (lower right)

.

Some attempts at staging backfired, but probably none so badly as when Gennett and Conner accidentally set the recording-studio building on fire in an attempt to capture crackling flames on disc. [9] There were human perils to be dealt with as well, including a suspicious local patrolman who fired a shot their way while they were parked on a country road one dark night.

When Gennett could not obtain a desired effect, he dubbed recordings from other sources, perhaps not always legally. He paid K. I. Sakai of Tokyo for his recording of “Japanese Traffic Noise,” but there is no indication in the ledger that he paid for or sought permission from Victor to use two of their recordings, which he dubbed and cobbled together as “Traffic Noises of England, with Big Ben.” [10]

The sound-effects records helped to keep the Gennett operation afloat after Harry Gennett, Sr., discontinued commercial record production in 1934. However, demand for the records declined after the 1930s, as special-effects recording techniques became more sophisticated. Still, the operation remained in business (later under the “Speedy-Q” name) into the mid-1950s. In his 1956 interview, Gennett reported that he still received the  occasional order. [11]

____________

Notes

[1] “Richmond Plant Joins in Making Sound Pictures.” Richmond [IN] Item (November 22, 1928).

[2] Gennett ledger sheet, October 16, 1928.

[3] “Richmond Plant Joins in Making Sound Pictures,” op. cit.

[4] Gennett ledger sheets, 1929–1937.

[5] Corya, Bob. “Gennett Recalls Trip to Zoo to Make Animal Noise Records.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item  (November 12, 1956), p. 3.

[6] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Gags Irritating to Piano Tuners at Starr Plant.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item  (November 13, 1956), p. 7.

[7] Corya, Bob. “Gennett Recalls Trip to Zoo,” op. cit.

[8] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Recorded Locally Over 20 Years Ago Still Popular.” Richmond, IN Palladium-Item (November 11, 1956), p. 10.

[9] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Gags,” op. cit.

[10] Gennett ledger sheets: Mxs.  N 19944 – N 19947 (dubbed from Victor) and N 19954 (dubbed from purchased Japanese master).

[11] Corya, Bob. “Sound Effects Recorded Locally,” op. cit.

.

© 2017 by Allan R. Sutton. All rights are reserved.